Novel fragrant starch-based films with limonene were successfully prepared. Biodegradable materials of natural origin were used and the process was relatively simple and inexpensive. The effect of limonene on physicochemical properties of starch-based films (moisture absorption, solubility in water, wettability, mechanical properties) were compared to glycerol plasticized system. Taking into consideration that the obtained materials could also exhibit bactericidal and fungicidal properties, the studies with Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were performed. Such a material could potentially find application in food packaging (e.g. masking unpleasant odors, hydrophilic starch film would prevent food drying), or in agriculture (e.g. for seed encapsulated tapes).
Readily available tetrachloro-2-aza-1,3-butadienes enter into directed cyclocondensation reaction with N-phenyl-1,2-cyclopentanediamine which leads to regioselective cyclopentane annulation by the 1,3,5-triazepine. The formation of the 1,3,5-triazepine derivatives was confirmed proved by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral study, elemental analysis and, in one case, single-crystal x-ray crystallographic study.
A fast and facile one-pot procedure for the preparation of symmetric 5-Aryloyl-1,9-dimethyl-5,9-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-d:6,5-d']dipyrimidine-2,4,6,8(1H,3H,7H)-tetraone derivatives by two-component reaction of N-methylbarbituric acid and arylglyoxalmonohydrates catalyzed by DABCO in ethanol at 50 ºC is described. This protocol has the advantages of environmental friendless, very simple operation, high regio- and chemoselectivity and moderate to excellent yields.
Crosslinked poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composites based on algerian hydrophilic natural Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) nanoclay named Maghnite-Na (Mag-Na) were prepared in aqueous media, without utilization of chemical crosslinking agents, by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. The morphology of hydrogel composites and their swelling in water at different amount of Mag-Na were investigated. The characterization of obtained hydrogel composites by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed a remarkable increase of the basal distance of Mag-Na in PVA hydrogels. Therefore, Intercalated and exfoliated morphology was observed for prepared composites hydrogels of PVA. The infra-red (FTIR) characterization results showed that some interactions have been developed between the hydroxyl groups of PVA chains and Mag-Na in composite hydrogels. Introducing Mag-Na into PVA hydrogel affected their swelling. Increased amount of Mag-Na decreased the equilibrium degree of swelling and equilibrium water content.
The Mg/Fe = 3 hydrotalcite as reusable solid catalyst was found to be an excellent heterogeneous base catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones/thiones, a multicomponent reaction using substituted aromatic aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea/thiourea. The work has been carried out under thermal solvent free conditions. Mg/Fe = 3 hydrotalcite heterogeneous solid catalyst offers simple means of recovery and the isolated catalyst was reused for number of times without significant loss of catalytic activity.
The quantum-chemical modeling mechanism of the [4+2]-cycloaddition reaction of 2,3 dimethylbuta-1,3-diene and methyl acrylate was conducted. Its qualitative aspects were analyzed at the molecular level by the program MOPAC2012 and semiempirical method RM1. The potential energy surfaces of 2,3 dimethylbuta-1,3-diene and methyl acrylate [4+2] cycloaddition possible reaction pathways were constructed by restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. It has been established that the molecule of the final product methyl-3,4-dimethylcyclohex-3-encarboxylate has the half-chair shape, wherein the carboalkoxyl group is in the exo-orientation. Interaction between molecules of 2,3 dimethylbuta-1,3-diene and methyl acrylate occurs by a two-step mechanism more likely than one-step, since the activation parameters of this interaction maximum coincide with the experimental data.
In this paper, modified hydrothermal method for Ti-MWW catalyst preparation has been shown. Instrumental analysis of the zeolite material Ti-MWW has been performed by means of UV-vis spectrometry, infrared spectrometry (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray microanalysis. Moreover, the results of the epoxidation of diallyl ether (DAE) over the titanium silicate catalyst Ti-MWW and in the presence of methanol have been presented. t-Butyl hydroperoxide have been applied for the first time as an oxidant for this process. The influence of temperature (20-130°C), DAE/TBHP molar ratio (1:1-3:1), methanol concentration (10-80 wt%), amount of catalyst (1-7 wt%) and reaction time (60-1440 min.) was studied. The main functions describing the process were determined on the basis of the results obtained from the gas chromatography method.
DFT calculations indicate that the decomposition reaction of nitroethyl benzoates in the presence of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation takes place much faster than in the case of the non-catalyzed process. Additionally, our calculations suggest one-step polar mechanism of title reactions.
In this investigation, neodymium orthoferrite (NdFeO3) nanoparticles has been synthesized through ultrasonic method in the presence of octanoic acid as surfactant. This method comparing to the other methods is very fast and it does not need high temperatures during the reaction. The spherical NdFeO3 nanoparticles with an average particles size of about 40 nm can be obtained at a relatively high calcination temperature of 800 °C for 4 h. Also, product obtained by this method are uniform in both morphology and particles size. The phase composition, morphology, lattice parameters and size of particles in these product are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). The XRD analysis reveals only the pattern corresponding to perovskite type NdFeO3 which crystallizes in the orthorhombic structure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the elemental compositions of the synthesized material.
Benzyl -L-rhamnopyranoside, prepared by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was converted into benzyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-α-L-rhamnopyranoside which after lauroylation followed by removal of isopropylidene group gave the benzyl 4-O-lauroyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside in good yield. Several derivatives of benzyl 4-O-lauroyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were prepared and assessed in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against ten human pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. The structure activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that incorporation of 4-O-lauroyl group in rhamnopyranoside frame work along with 2,3-di-O-acyl group increased the antifungal potentiality of the rhamnopyranosides.