Most packaged food products must contain trans-fat labelling; however unpackaged snacks such as cookies, donuts, and muffins at supermarkets, gas station convenience stores, and bakeries often do not have or require nutrition fact labels. Hence, consumers are not aware of the trans-fat content in unpackaged food products. It is well-known within the health and scientific community that diets high in trans-fat can lead to a host of health problems, namely coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary study of the trans-fat content in unpackaged baked goods, particularly unpackaged glazed donuts. To accomplish our objective, we determined the % trans-fat in oil extracted from glazed donuts obtained from several supermarkets, gas stations and bakeries across Northwest, Indiana. Variable Filter Array (VFA) IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings.
In this work, a low cost glucose and methanol nonenzymatic sensor was prepared using nickel oxide (NiO) nanofilm electrodeposited on a bare Cu electrode. Electrochemical deposition was assisted with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the surface morphology of the modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques were used to study the electrocatalytic behavior of NiO porous film in glucose and methanol detection. For glucose sensing, the electrode showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.01-2.14 mM with a low limit of detection (LOD) 1.7 µM (signal/noise ratio (S/N)=3). Moreover, high sensitivities of 4.02 mA mM?1 cm?2 and 0.38 mA mM?1 cm?2 respectively in glucose and methanol monitoring suggested the modified electrode as an excellent sensor. The NiO-Cu modified electrode was relatively insensitive to common biological interferers. This sensor possessed good poison resistance towards chloride ions, and long term stability and significant selectivity towards glucose and methanol. Finally the proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of glucose in human blood serum samples.
The bulk room-temperature polymerization of styrene initiated by environmentally friendly catalysts Maghnite-Na+ is investigated. The catalyst removed from the reaction mixture simply by filtration could be regenerated and reused. The effect of the Maghnite-Na+ catalyst loading on degree of polymerization had been studied and state their inverse relation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy.
The current development of polyurethane self-healing materials has been evaluated and reviewed. Three main ways of self-healing – microcontainers, microvascular networks and reversible polymers - are described, and recent most prominent examples of self-healing materials applications presented.
The adsorption behavior of a potential polynuclear Schiff base, (s)-2-(anthracen-9(10H)-ylideneamino)-3-phenyl propanoic acid (A9Y3PPA) on carbon steel (CS) in 1M hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated using weight loss measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization studies. The surface morphology of the carbon steel specimens in the presence and absence of the inhibitor was evaluated by AFM analysis. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies of parent amine and parent ketone on carbon steel in 1M HCl solution have also been investigated using weight loss studies. The adsorption of A9Y3PPA obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters (Kads, ∆G0ads) were calculated using the adsorption isotherm. Activation parameters of the corrosion process (Ea, ∆H* and ∆S*) were also calculated from the corrosion rates obtained from temperature studies. Tafel plot analysis revealed that A9Y3PPA acts as a mixed type inhibitor. A probable inhibition mechanism was also proposed.
Enzymatic assay, based on oxidation-reduction reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, is one of the methods used to determine ethanol concentration. The present study was directed to determine the exact amount of enzyme required to accomplish oxidation-reduction reaction so that the concentration of ethanol in the sample can be determined precisely and accurately. Results of the present study indicate that the lowest unit activity of the enzyme that can be used for ethanol determination is 4000 units/mL, even though longer incubation time compared to the original method was used to ensure reaction completion. Validation of the method confirmed that the assay have acceptable linearity range within 0.01 - 0.06% (v/v) of ethanol with correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Both accuracy and precision parameters fulfill the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) International requirement, and therefore can be accepted as a quantitative analysis method. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation for the modified method were 0.0017% (v/v) and 0.0056% (v/v), respectively.
The electron transport of Phthalocyanines (Pc) with central metal and di-axial ligands (such as FeIII(Pc)L2; where L = CN, Cl, Br) originates from its intermolecular Pc π-π orbital overlap while its giant negative magnetoresistance (GNMR) arises from its intramolecular Pc-π(HOMO) and Fe-d (s=1/2) interaction. However, the π-d interaction tends to localize itinerant electrons resulting in the decrease in the conductivity of the FeIII(Pc)L2 series compared to the non-magnetic CoIII(Pc)L2 where π-d interaction is absent. More so, the axial ligand field energy of the FeIII(Pc)L2 system is found to have the ability to proportionally modulate the π-d interaction. In reference thereof, theoretical calculations point that isostructural RuIII(Pc)Br2 would provide the best balance of π-d orbital energy interplay. That is, RuIII(Pc)Br2 is expected to be a molecule with high electrical conductivity and GNMR which would make it an ideal magnetic molecular conductor. This paper reports on the synthesis of RuIII(Pc)Br2.
In the present work, Zn(II), Co(II) and Cr(II) metal complexes (3-5) of N-hydroxy-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]benzamidine ligand (2) were synthesized and their anti-HIV activity by inhibiting reverse transcriptase was explored. Structural characterization using NMR, FTIR, Mass, UV-Vis spectra, TGA, magnetic moment and elemental analyses were performed. The analyses show that geometry, lipophilicity and steric factor play crucial role. Cell viability test is performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells to check toxicity of prepared compounds on immune system, shows toxicity only at higher concentration. Antimicrobial activity and DNA cleavage analysis have also been studied and reported.
The title compound - (Z)-1-bromo-1-nitro-2-phenylethene - was prepared by a three-step reaction. Its structure was con?rmed by spectral analysis as well as X-ray crystallography. It was found, that the compound crystallized in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, a=11.5296(6)Å, b=7.5013(5)Å, c=19.7187(12)Å, Å=B=Å=90°, Z=8.
Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds has become an important issue in the process industry as well as many other applications. In this method, various benzylic alcohols were successfully converted to corresponding aldehydes and ketones under transition metal-free condition using hydrogen peroxide in the presence of some amount of catalytic acidic silica gel. Silica gel is inexpensive and available. One of the most important features of this method is its short reaction time.