Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s), and Entrepreneurial businesses (EB) play an important role in tourism since tourism has increasingly become the largest economic sector. Entrepreneurships known as a mean of economic development and policymakers are looking for creating a competitive and dynamic entrepreneurial economy. The aim of this study is to present a model for entrepreneurship tourism policy by using entrepreneurship development framework, which interacts with economic development. To this purpose, entrepreneurship policy dimensions are weighted and prioritized by tourism entrepreneurs, tourism policymakers and experts using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique and Analytical Network Process (ANP) technique. First, DEMATEL technique is used to identify complex relationships, and to form a network relationship map. Then, ANP technique is used to calculate the influential weights of policy criteria. Results show that policymakers for entrepreneurship development in tourism need to consider basic requirements factors. In addition, they should improve efficiency enhancer criteria as well as innovation driver criteria. Also, the relationship among dimensions and their influences on each other are illustrated. Using the capabilities of this method, we can determine the casual relationships between dimensions and criteria and identify priorities for policy.
Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS) as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.
This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and organizational entrepreneurship. The proposed model of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some employees of Islamic Azad University of Semnan branch. For the proposed study, organizational entrepreneurship is considered as independent variable and intellectual capital components are considered as dependent variables. The questionnaire consists of 25 questions in eight different categories. In order to validate the overall questionnaire we have used Cronbach alpha where it was 72.9 for intellectual capital and it was 79.2 for Intrapreneurship. The results of testing various hypotheses indicate that there were positive and meaningful relationships between these two components.
As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.
The Indigenous Ghanaian woman entrepreneur, this study found exhibits many similarities with their counterparts in other countries in terms of their personality traits. However, they differed in other aspects such as their educational backgrounds and modes of entrepreneurial skills acquisition. Through their entrepreneurial activities the women have made substantial contributions to the economic growth of Ghana in terms of innovation, job creation, and reduction in poverty and unemployment. Using a survey methodology, this study concludes that to succeed as a female entrepreneur in Ghana, one requires some specific knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Today, the positive impact of entrepreneurship in the economy has been globally accepted. Entrepreneurs could provide efficient techniques to face with upcoming economic challenges. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on growth of economy over the period 2005- 2011. Then we study the impact of four factors including Gross domestic product per worker, Growth in capital per worker, New firm creation and Technological innovation intensity on economic growth. The proposed model of this paper uses ordinary least square technique to investigate the relationship between four independent variables and economic growth. The results show that gross domestic product per worker is the only variable, which is statistically meaningful when the level of significance is five percent and the impact of other three variables including growth in capital per worker, new firm creation and technological innovation intensity are not statistically meaningful. In other word, as we see a 1% increase in gross domestic product per worker we could expect 8.712% increase in economic growth.
Entrepreneurs are the driving force behind the prospect and growth of the societies. Sound and wise decisions pave the way for them to carry out these highly important functions. Entrepreneurs are to discover and exploit opportunities. Therefore, they must gather sufficient and pertinent information. Entrepreneurs, like most human beings face complex and ambiguous decision-making situations, not to mention their lack of time and source to gather and process the data. Under these circumstances, entrepreneurs are prone making biases decisions. There are many reasons identified for this entrepreneurial decision making biases, such as the high cost of rational decision making, limitations in information processing, differences in their styles and procedures, or information overload, environmental complexity, environmental uncertainty. These biases are neither totally harmful nor completely useful and have to be seen as natural human characteristics. What makes entrepreneurial decision-making biases important is their effects on the decisions and thus the outcome of the enterprises. Entrepreneurial decision-making biases, deliberate or unintentional can seal the fate of the enterprises, therefore studying them meticulously is crucial. Literature has shown that experience could be an effective factor in decision-making biases. In this paper, we try to find out the impact of experience in Iranian high tech entrepreneurs’ major decision-making biases by a qualitative approach. Finally, it was concluded that experience is influential in shaping overconfidence bias.
It has been a long time that researchers are trying to find out on why some people have better mental health than others do and some are more successful than the others are. There are many evidences to believe that having general intelligence does not necessarily yield prosperity and success and it could be accounted up to 20% of the success, whereas the remaining 80% is associated with other issues. The present study attempts to perform a comparative study on emotional intelligence and cognitive among successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs. We adopt a standard test, which includes 133 questions and distribute it between two groups of successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs in province of Sistan and Balochestan located in south west of Iran. The results of our ANOVA test when the level of significance is five percent reveal that emotional intelligence can substantially impact on the success of entrepreneurs.
One of the primary concerns of many governmental agencies is to create job and working opportunities. The job creation is often promoted by loans devoted from the banks. This paper performs an empirical study to measure the relative efficiency of job creation from year 2002 to 2010 in different cities including Semnan, Dameghan, Shahrood, Garmsar and Mahdishahr located in west region of Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses data envelopment analysis where there are two inputs including the granted loans to private sector and the job applicants and two outputs including the assigned to work and the number of jobs created. The results indicate that the city of Garmsar represents the highest efficiency and Damghan maintains the lowest efficiency.
Entrepreneurs are big potentials for developing economy in any countries. They provide new job opportunities and help economy boost. There are literally many industries, which rely on new these people and they are considered as the primary source of generating new jobs. In this paper, we discuss three entrepreneurship opportunities including universities, technical and vocational centers and women. Universities are able to educate highly skilled people and send them to business and they are able to create new ideas. Technical and vocational centers are, in fact, the best place for training basic or recent advances in technological skills through short term or long term planning. The survey also indicates that women can be considered as a good source of job creation. In this paper, we review the recent related literature on entrepreneurship opportunities in the world and discuss some of the related issues more specifically in Iran.