Inconel 718 is among difficult to machine materials because of its abrasiveness and high strength even at high temperature. This alloy is mainly used in aircraft and aerospace industries. Therefore, it is very important to reveal and evaluate cutting tools behavior during machining of this kind of alloy. The experimental study presented in this research work has been carried out in order to elucidate surface roughness and productivity mathematical models during turning of Inconel 718 superalloy (35 HRC) with SiC Whisker ceramic tool at various cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed and radius nose). A small central composite design (SCCD) including 16 basics runs replicated three times (48 runs), was adopted and graphically evaluated using Fraction of design space (FDS) graph, completed by a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mathematical models for surface roughness and productivity were developed and normality was improved using the Box-Cox transformation. Results show that surface roughness criterion Ra was mainly influenced by cutting speed, radius nose and feed rate, and that the depth of cut had major effect on productivity. Finally, ranges of optimized cutting conditions were proposed for serial industrial production. Industrial benefit was illustrated in terms of high surface quality accompanied with high productivity. Indeed, results show that the use of optimal cutting condition had an industrial benefit to 46.9 % as an improvement in surface quality Ra and 160.54 % in productivity MRR.
This paper suggests an advanced hybrid multi output optimization technique by applying weighted principal component analysis (WPCA) incorporated with response surface methodology (RSM). This investigation has been carried out through a case study in CNC turning of Aluminum alloy 63400 for surface roughness (Ra) and tool vibration (db) optimization. Primarily, input parameters such as spindle speed (N), feed rate (S) and depth of cut (t) are designed for experiment by using RSM Box-Behnken methodology. The aluminum alloy workpieces are machined by using coated carbide tool (inserts) in dry environment. Secondly, the empirical model for the responses as the functions of cutting parameters are obtained through RSM technique and the adequacy of the models have been checked using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the process parameters are optimized using WPCA technique. The confirmatory experiment has been performed using optimized result and it reveals that multiple response performance index (MPI) value was increased by 0.2908 from initial setting. The increases in MPI value indicates that the aforesaid optimization methodology is suitably acceptable for multi response optimization for turning process.
The objective of the present work is to use a suitable method that can optimize the process parameters like pulse on time (TON), pulse off time (TOFF), wire feed rate (WF), wire tension (WT) and servo voltage (SV) to attain the maximum value of MRR and minimum value of surface roughness during the production of a fine pitch spur gear made of copper. The spur gear has a pressure angle of 20⁰ and pitch circle diameter of 70 mm. The wire has a diameter of 0.25 mm and is made of brass. Experiments were conducted according to Taguchi’s orthogonal array concept with five factors and two levels. Thus, Taguchi quality loss design technique is used to optimize the output responses carried out from the experiments. Another optimization technique i.e. desirability with grey Taguchi technique has been used to optimize the process parameters. Both the optimized results are compared to find out the best combination of MRR and surface roughness. A confirmation test was carried out to identify the significant improvement in the machining performance in case of Taguchi quality loss. Finally, it was concluded that desirability with grey Taguchi technique produced a better result than the Taguchi quality loss technique in case of MRR and Taguchi quality loss gives a better result in case of surface roughness. The quality of the wire after the cutting operation has been presented in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) figure.
The present study investigates performance and feasibility of application of low cost cemented carbide insert in dry machining of AISI 52100 steel hardened to (55 ± 1 HRC) which is rarely researched as far as machining of bearing steel is concerned. Machinability studies i.e. flank wear, surface roughness and morphology analysis of chip has been investigated and statistical regression modeling has been developed. The test has been conducted based on Taguchi L16 OA taking machining parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. It is observed that uncoated cemented carbide insert performs well at some selected runs (Run 1, 5 and 9) which show its feasibility for hard turning applications. The developed serrated saw tooth chip of burnt blue colour adversely affects the surface quality. Adequacy of the developed statistical regression model has been checked using ANOVA analysis (depending on F value, P value and R2 value) and normal probability plot at 95% confidence level. The results of optimal parametric combinations may be adopted while turning hardened AISI 52100 steel under dry environment with uncoated cemented carbide insert.
The present work concerns an experimental study of turning with coated cermet tools with TiCN-TiN coating layer of AISI 52100 bearing steel. The main objectives are firstly focused on the effect of cutting parameters and coating material on the performances of cutting tools. Secondly, to perform a Multi-objective optimization for minimizing surface roughness (Ra) and maximizing material removal rate by desirability approach. A mathematical model was developed based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). ANOVA method was used to quantify the cutting parameters effects on the machining surface quality and the material removal rate. The results analysis shows that the feed rate has the most effect on the surface quality. The effect of coating layers on the surface quality is also studied. It is observed that a lower surface roughness is obtained when using PVD (TiCN-TiN) coated insert when compared with uncoated tool. The values of root mean square deviation and coefficient of correlation between the theoretical and experimental data are also given in this work where the maximum calculated error is 2.65 %.
This paper investigates the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI when turning using PVD TiAlN coated tool in dry environment. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design of experiment was used for the turning experiment 2 factors and 3 levels. Turning parameters studied were cutting speed (50, 65, 80 m/min), feed rate (0.08, 0.15, 0.2 mm/rev) and depth of cut 0.5 mm constant. Linear and second order model of the surface roughness and cutting force has been developed in terms of cutting speed and feed. The results show that the feed rate was the most impact factor controlling the cutting force and surface roughness produced. MINITAB 17software was used to develop a linear and second order model of surface roughness and cutting force. Optimum condition was at 66.97 m/min of cutting speed, 0.08 mm/rev of feed rate. Surface roughness 0.57?m and cutting force 54.02 N were obtained at the optimum condition. A good agreement between the experimental and predicted surface roughness and cutting force were observed.
Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate) on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.
This paper presents an experimental study on rough cut, trim cut using distilled water as a dielectric fluid and Al & Si metal powders in dielectric fluid for WEDM of Nimonic-90. First, the influence of discharge energy (DE) in rough cut is evaluated for machining rate (MR) and surface roughness (SR) and compared with trim cut without any metal powder additives in dielectric fluid. The effect of Al and Si metal powders (varying concentration of 1g/L, 2g/L and 3g/L) in dielectric fluid is studied separately and comparison is also made for MR, SR, recast layer and micro hardness of machined Nimonic-90. From the results it is observed that using trim cut, a fine and uniform surface texture is obtained irrespective of the high discharge energy of rough cut. Al and Si powders additives show a significant reduction in MR for trim cutting operation whereas a remarkable modification is obtained in surface textures after trim cut using metals powder mixed dielectric. SR improves with a concentration of 1g/L and shows a little increase with high concentration of both metals powder. Using metals powder in dielectric fluid, the recast layer becomes smooth and denser and thus, micro hardness increases.
Powder mixed electro discharge machining (PMEDM) is a hybrid machining process where the electrically conductive powder is mixed into the dielectric fluid to enhance the machining efficiency. In this investigation, PMEDM is performed for the machining of AISI 304 stainless steel when silicon carbide powder is mixed into the kerosene dielectric. Peak current, pulse on time, gap voltage, duty cycle and powder concentration are considered as process parameter while material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra) are considered as response. A face centered central composite design (FCCCD) based response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to design the experiment. A hybrid optimization technique like desirability coupled with fuzzy-logic method is performed to get the optimum level of the multiple performance characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed for the statistical analysis. The result shows that peak current is the most significant parameter for MRR, TWR and Ra. The optimal setting for maximum MRR, minimum TWR and Ra have been obtained by desirability coupled with fuzzy-logic method.
Powder mixed electro discharge machining (PMEDM) is a hybrid machining process where electrically conductive powder is suspended into a dielectric medium, for enhancing the material removal as well as the surface finish. In this investigation, electro discharge machining (EDM) has been performed for the machining of AISI 304 stainless steel by using the tungsten carbide electrode, when silicon carbide (SiC) powder is suspended into kerosene dielectric medium. Peak current, pulse on time, gap voltage, duty cycle and powder concentration are considered as process parameter while the surface roughness (Ra) is the only response. The effect of significant process parameters on the response has been studied. A regression analysis has been performed to describe the correlation of data between the machining parameter, and the response. Microstructural analysis has been done for the PMEDMed surface. The result shows that peak current is the most influential parameter for surface roughness. Surface roughness decreases with the increase of powder concentration.