Inconel 718 is among difficult to machine materials because of its abrasiveness and high strength even at high temperature. This alloy is mainly used in aircraft and aerospace industries. Therefore, it is very important to reveal and evaluate cutting tools behavior during machining of this kind of alloy. The experimental study presented in this research work has been carried out in order to elucidate surface roughness and productivity mathematical models during turning of Inconel 718 superalloy (35 HRC) with SiC Whisker ceramic tool at various cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed and radius nose). A small central composite design (SCCD) including 16 basics runs replicated three times (48 runs), was adopted and graphically evaluated using Fraction of design space (FDS) graph, completed by a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mathematical models for surface roughness and productivity were developed and normality was improved using the Box-Cox transformation. Results show that surface roughness criterion Ra was mainly influenced by cutting speed, radius nose and feed rate, and that the depth of cut had major effect on productivity. Finally, ranges of optimized cutting conditions were proposed for serial industrial production. Industrial benefit was illustrated in terms of high surface quality accompanied with high productivity. Indeed, results show that the use of optimal cutting condition had an industrial benefit to 46.9 % as an improvement in surface quality Ra and 160.54 % in productivity MRR.
Laser direct structuring (LDS) is very important step in the MID process and it is a complex process due to different parameters, which influence on this process and its final product. Therefore, it is very important to use a reliable model to predict, analyze and control the performance of the (LDS) process and the quality of the final product. In this work we develop mathematical models by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to study this process. The proposed models are used to study the effect of the LDS parameters on the groove dimensions (width and depth), lap dimensions (groove lap width and height) and finally the heat effective zone (interaction width), which are important to determine the line width/space in the MID products and the metallization profile after the metallization step. We also study the relationship between the LDS parameters and the surface roughness which is very important factor for the adhesion strength of MID structures. Moreover these models capable of finding a set of optimum LDS parameters that provide the required micro-channel dimensions with the best or the suitable surface roughness. A set of experimental tests are carried out to validate the developed ANN and the RSM models. It has been found that the predicted values for the proposal ANN and RSM models were closer to the experimental values, and the overall average absolute percentage errors were 4.02 % and 6.52%, respectively. Finally, it has been found that, the developed ANN model could be used to predict the response of the LDS process more accurately than RSM model.
This paper demonstrates an experimental scrutiny into turning process of hot work tool steel AISI H21 under dry machining plight. In this paper, face centered central composite design concealed by response surface methodology is practiced and analysis of variance is implemented to analyze the eloquent benefaction of machining parameters on responses. To access accommodate between the surface roughness and the MRR, an approach for concurrent optimization of multi-objective characteristics based on comprehensive desirability function is employed. The multi objective optimization concludes a spindle speed of 1599.568 rpm, feed rate of 0.262 mm/rev and depth of cut of 2 mm.
This paper presents an experimental investigation on cutting temperature during hard turning of EN 24 steel (50 HRC) using TiN coated carbide insert under dry environment. The prediction model is developed using response surface methodology and optimization of process parameter is performed by desirability approach. A stiff rise in cutting temperature is noticed when feed and cutting speed are elevated. The effect of depth of cut on cutting temperature is not that much significant compared with cutting speed and feed as observed from main effects plot. The response surface second order model presented high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.992) explaining 99.2 % of the variability in the cutting temperature which indicates the goodness of fit for the model to the actual data and high statistical significance of the model. The experimental and predicted values are very close to each other. The calculated error for cutting temperature lies between 1.88-3.19 % during confirmation trial. Therefore, the developed second order model correlates the relationship of the cutting temperature with the process parameters with good degree of approximation. The optimal combination for process parameter is depth of cut at 0.2mm, feed of 0.1597 mm/rev and cutting speed of 70m/min. Based on these combination, the value of cutting temperature is 302.950C whose desirability is one.
The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc). The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v), feed (f) and machining time (t) as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98%) is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.
The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time) is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model & apos; s assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE) algorithm (upper bound), where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.
Highly automated CNC end milling machines in manufacturing industry requires reliable model for prediction of tool flank wear. This model later can be used to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax) according to the process parameters. In this investigation an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the tool flank wear (VBmax) of carbide tools while machining LM25 Al/SiCp incorporating the process parameters such as spindle speed (N), feed rate (f), depth of cut (d) and various % wt. of silicon carbide (S). Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimizing the end milling process parameters to attain the minimum tool flank wear. Predicted values obtained from the developed model and experimental results are compared, and error & LT; 5 percent is observed. In addition, it is concluded that the flank wear increases with the increase of SiCp percentage weight in the MMC.
The investigation of dynamic response of intervertebral disc is beneficial for the development of new synthetic and engineered tissues for treating diseased or injured disc. There are limited experimental studies on comparing the effect of loading mode and rate on global response of intervertebral disc. In this study, in-vitro experiments were performed using a total of 24 porcine motion segments. The harvested specimens were assigned to prolong and 2 different cyclic loadings. Both disc deformations and water contents were measured to investigate how the mode and rate of loading affect the response of intervertebral disc. In parallel, a backward FE poroelastic model combined with in-vitro experiments were used to find the material properties of intervertebral discs. The experimental result showed that the final disc height loss under creep loading was significantly greater than cyclic groups. Increasing the frequency of cyclic loading decreased the disc height loss. The water content decreased significantly in cyclic loading from those in prolong loading. The backward FE models showed that, the elastic modulus of anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus were 2.43 (±0.48) MPa and 1.46 (±0.29) MPa, respectively. The hydraulic permeability was 2.08 (±0.42) ×10-16m4/Ns, and the Poisson’s ratio was 0.21 (±0.03). In conclusion, this study investigated how the loading mode and rate affect porcine intervertebral disc deformation. It is found that dynamic stiffness is greater at higher frequencies which resulted from interactions between the solid phase and fluid flow within the disc.
In this paper, we present machining tests by turning En-31 steel alloy with tungsten carbide inserts using soluble oil-water mixture lubricant under different machining conditions. Firstorder and second-order cutting force prediction models were developed by using the experimental data by applying response surface methodology combined with factorial design of experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The established equations show that feed rate and depth of cut are the main influencing factors on the cutting force followed by tool nose radius and cutting velocity. It increases with increase in the feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius but decreases with an increase in the cutting velocity. The predicted cutting force values of the samples have been found to lie close to that of the experimentally observed values with 95% confident levels. Moreover, the surface response counters have been generated from the model equations. Desirability function is used for single response optimization.