The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of factors such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on surface roughness and Material Removed Rate (MRR) when machining in dry face milling AISI 1040 steel with coated carbide inserts GC1030 using the response surface methodology (RSM). For this purpose, a number of machining experiments based on statistical three-factor and three-level factorial experiment designs, completed (L27) with a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), were performed in order to develop mathematical models and to identify the significant factors of these technological parameters. Multi-objective optimization procedure for minimizing Ra, Ry and Rz and maximizing MRR using desirability approach has been also implementented. The current study was also carried out to investigate the tool life of the inserts. The models found the relationship between the cutting parameters (Vc, fz and ap) and the studied technological parameters. It has been found that the cutting speed was the most affecting surface roughness which is due to the geometry of the insert which has a scraping edge and enables to obtain low roughness even at important feed rate, followed by the feed rate and the depth of cut at the end. The optimal combination of cutting parameters were cutting speed of 314 m/min, feed rate of 0.16 mm/tooth and depth of cut of 0.6 mm with a composite desirability of 0.924.
The present study investigates performance and feasibility of application of low cost cemented carbide insert in dry machining of AISI 52100 steel hardened to (55 ± 1 HRC) which is rarely researched as far as machining of bearing steel is concerned. Machinability studies i.e. flank wear, surface roughness and morphology analysis of chip has been investigated and statistical regression modeling has been developed. The test has been conducted based on Taguchi L16 OA taking machining parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. It is observed that uncoated cemented carbide insert performs well at some selected runs (Run 1, 5 and 9) which show its feasibility for hard turning applications. The developed serrated saw tooth chip of burnt blue colour adversely affects the surface quality. Adequacy of the developed statistical regression model has been checked using ANOVA analysis (depending on F value, P value and R2 value) and normal probability plot at 95% confidence level. The results of optimal parametric combinations may be adopted while turning hardened AISI 52100 steel under dry environment with uncoated cemented carbide insert.
Machining of hardened work materials with appropriate levels of process parameters is still a burning issue in manufacturing sectors and challenging. It is because of pressing demand of surface quality which adversely affected by evolution of tool wear. Therefore the present investigation is undertaken to make a decision on parametric optimization of multi-responses such as flank wear and surface roughness during machining hardened AISI 52100 steel (55±1) steel using mixed ceramic insert under dry environment through grey relational analysis combined with Taguchi approach. Also predicted mathematical models of 1st and 2nd order have been developed for responses and checked for its accuracy. Second order mathematical model presented higher R2 value and represents best fit of the model and adequate compared to first order model. Model indicates good correlations between the experimental and predicted results. The proposed grey-based Taguchi methodology has been proved to be efficient for solving multi-attribute decision making problem as a case study in hard machining environment.
The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc). The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v), feed (f) and machining time (t) as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98%) is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.
Turning hardened component with PCBN and ceramic inserts have been extensively used recently and replaces traditional grinding operation. The use of inexpensive multilayer coated carbide insert in hard turning is lacking and hence there is a need to investigate the potential and applicability of such tools in turning hardened steels. An attempt has been made in this paper to have a study on turning hardened AISI 4340 steel (47 ± 1 HRC) using coated carbide inserts (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN) under dry environment. The aim is to assess the tool life of inserts and evolution of flank wear with successive machining time. From experimental investigations, the gradual growth of flank wear for multilayer coated insert indicates steady machining without any premature tool failure by chipping or fracturing. Abrasion is found to be the dominant wear mechanisms in hard turning. Tool life of multilayer coated carbide inserts has been found to be 31 minute and machining cost per part is Rs.3.64 only under parametric conditions chosen i.e. v = 90 m/min, f = 0.05 mm/rev and d = 0.5 mm. The mathematical model shows high determination coefficient, R2 (99%) and fits the actual data well. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie very close to the experimental value at 95% confidence level. This shows the potential and effectiveness of multilayer coated carbide insert used in hard turning applications.