In a continuous manufacturing environment where production and consumption occur simultaneously, one of the biggest challenges is the efficient management of production and inventory system. In order to manage the integrated production inventory system economically it is necessary to identify the optimal production time and the optimal production reorder point that either maximize the profit or minimize the cost. In addition, during production the process has to go through some natural phenomena like random breakdown of machine, deterioration of product over time, uncertainty in repair time that eventually create the possibility of shortage. In this situation, efficient management of inventory & production is crucial. This paper addresses the situation where a perishable (deteriorated) product is manufactured and consumed simultaneously, the demand of this product is stable over the time, machine that produce the product also face random failure and the time to repair this machine is also uncertain. In order to describe this scenario more appropriately, the continuously reviewed Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) model is considered in this research work. The main goal is to identify the optimal production uptime and the production reorder point that ultimately minimize the expected value of total cost consisting of machine setup, deterioration, inventory holding, shortage and corrective maintenance cost.
Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002) [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (2002). A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: a study in seven countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4), 302-326.] while managerial effectiveness is assessed by using Tsui’s (1984) scale [Tsui, A.S. (1984). A role set analysis of managerial reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96.]. Data were collected by distributing self-administered questionnaires among the working MBA students using a convenience sampling technique. Respondents are asked to rate their emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness scales. Finally 127 usable responses are received and, then, analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Analysis shows that emotional intelligence was positively related with interpersonal role, informational role, and decision role. The main implication is that emotional intelligence could enhance managerial effectiveness guiding the managers, academics, and professionals. The limitations are the sample size and the sampling technique which might limit the generalizability of the findings. Future directions are also discussed.
Benzyl -L-rhamnopyranoside, prepared by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was converted into benzyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-α-L-rhamnopyranoside which after lauroylation followed by removal of isopropylidene group gave the benzyl 4-O-lauroyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside in good yield. Several derivatives of benzyl 4-O-lauroyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were prepared and assessed in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against ten human pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. The structure activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that incorporation of 4-O-lauroyl group in rhamnopyranoside frame work along with 2,3-di-O-acyl group increased the antifungal potentiality of the rhamnopyranosides.
Evaluation of faculty members is very significant for educational organization to prompt reputation of the organization and to provide quality education. Teaching staff, the pillars of the educational institution, can change the whole nation stimulating the magnet of interest, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. Selecting a better academic staff among the others is very crucial for Human Resources Management (HRM) as the success of any organization solely depends on how well it selects its manpower. Institute managing committee must have a reliable technique to judge a teachers’ ranking through multiple conflicting criteria because different teachers have various capabilities. In Bangladesh, it is a common practice in public engineering universities to select teachers only having good academic records. But teaching staff selection problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It is evident that it has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. In this paper, a structured framework has been developed using MCDM methods both in fuzzy as well as non-fuzzy environments in the renowned engineering university of Bangladesh, where seven candidates under fifteen different sub-criteria are evaluated and ranked. The study helps the recruitment panel of educational organization in Bangladesh select the most eligible academic staff for required posts.
In our present investigation a new series of nucleoside derivatives (2-13) were synthesized from uridine (1) via only two step reactions by direct acylation method. Firstly, uridine (1) was treated with 4-t-butylbenzoyl chloride in pyridine at -5?C and afforded the 5´-O-(4-t-butylbenzoyl)uridine derivative (2) in an excellent yield. In order to obtain newer products, the 5´-O-uridine derivative was further transformed to a series of 2´,3´-di-O-acyl derivatives (2-13) containing a wide variety of functionalities in a single molecular framework. The yields of the compounds were more than 80%. The synthesized titled compounds were characterized by their physical properties, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), 1H-NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and elemental analysis.
The safety of civil aviation will be more secured if the errors in all the facets can be reduced. Like the other industrial sectors, human resource is one of the most complex and sensitive resources for the civil aviation. The error of human resources can cause fatal disasters. In these days, a good volume of researches have been conducted on the disaster of civil aviation. The researchers have identified the causes of the civil aviation disasters from various perspectives. They identified the areas where more concern is needed to reduce the disastrous impacts. This paper aims to find out the critical factors of human error in civil aviation in a developing country (Bangladesh) as it is accepted that human error is one of main causes of civil aviation disasters. The paper reviews the previous research to find out the critical factors conceptually. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) has been used to find out the critical factors systematically. Analyses indicate that the concentration on precondition for unsafe acts (including sub-factors) is required to ensure the aviation safety.
Inventories are the materials stored either waiting for processing or experiencing processing and in some cases for future delivery. Inventories are treated both as blessings and evil. As they are like money placed in a drawer, assets tied up in investments, incurring costs for the care of the stored material and also subject to spoilage and obsolescence there have been a spate of programs developed by industries, all aimed at reducing inventory levels and increasing efficiency on the shop floor. Nevertheless, they do have positive purposes such as stable source of input required for production, less replenishment and may reduce ordering costs because of economies of scale. Finished goods inventories provide for better customer service. So formulating a suitable inventory model is one of the major concerns for an industry. Again considering reliability of any process is an important trend in the current research activities. Inventory models could be both deterministic and probabilistic and both of which must account for the reliability of the associated production process. This paper discusses the major works in the field of inventory modeling driven by reliability considerations, which ranges from the very beginning to latest works just published.
Strategic warehouse location-allocation problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both numerical and qualitative criteria. In order to survive in the global business scenario by improving supply chain performance, companies must examine the cross-functional drivers in the optimization of logistic systems. A meticulous observation makes evident that strategy warehouse location selection has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. The issue becomes particularly problematic when the conventional concept has been applied in dealing with the imprecise nature of the linguistic assessment. The qualitative decisions for selection process are often complicated by the fact that often it is imprecise for the decision makers. Such problem must be overcome with defined efforts. Fuzzy multi-criteria decision making methods have been used in this research as aids in making location-allocation decisions. The anticipated methods in this research consist of two steps at its core. In the first step, the criteria of the existing problem are inspected and identified and then the weights of the sector and subsector are determined that have come to light by using Fuzzy AHP. In the second step, eligible alternatives are ranked by using TOPSIS and Fuzzy TOPSIS comparatively. A demonstration of the application of these methodologies in a real life problem is presented.
Supply chain management is important for companies and organizations to improve their business and lead competitiveness in the global marketplace. But demand variations in the supply chain are significant problem for most practitioners, planners, demand managers, and operations managers. Demand variations make forecasting and inventory management more difficult and tend to increase inventory levels. The supply chain (SC) profitability can be affected by the cost associated with large inventories, transportation, and production due to the bullwhip effect. Only bullwhip effect can lead to reduce the supply chain profitability in great amount. This paper represents a computational intelligence approach, which addresses the bullwhip effect in multistage supply chain. As a computational intelligence approach, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to reduce the bullwhip effect. Through this approach, optimal order quantity in each stage is to be calculated by considering cost associated with bullwhip effect. Distorted information from one end of a supply chain can lead to tremendous inefficiencies to other end. In this paper it is shown that if each player of the supply chain orders or transfers optimum quantities for the upcoming period then the bullwhip effect can be reduced significantly.
In hierarchical production planning system, Aggregate Production Planning (APP) falls between the broad decisions of long-range planning and the highly specific and detailed short-range planning decisions. This study develops an interactive Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) approach for solving the multi-product, multi-period aggregate production planning (APP) with forecasted demand, related operating costs, and capacity. The proposed approach attempts to minimize total costs with reference to inventory levels, labor levels, overtime, subcontracting and backordering levels, and labor, machine and warehouse capacity. Here several genetic algorithm parameters are considered for solving NP-hard problem (APP problem) and their relative comparisons are focused to choose the most auspicious combination for solving multiple objective problems. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to real APP decision problems. Consequently, the proposed MOGA approach yields an efficient APP compromise solution for large-scale problems.