We study the question of how to ideally divide total profits among supply chain members, especially in a stochastic demand market. The Shapley value is used as the methodology solution to divide profits in a supply chain. To illustrate the Shapley value solution and procedures, a two-echelon supply chain consisting of one supplier and two heterogeneous retailers is examined. The goal is to figure out ideal transfer prices for products delivered among supply chain members. These transfer prices will achieve the suggested profit allocations among three companies.
An appropriate supply chain design helps survival in competitive markets. Achieving maximum efficiency may also help decision makers have a better selection for the supply chain network. The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient supply chain model in terms of the distribution channels under uncertain conditions. The proposed study produces multi products using different materials by considering four layers of multiple suppliers, producers, storages and customers. There are two objectives of maximizing efficiency of distributers and minimizing total cost of supply chain management. The proposed model locates producers as well as suppliers and determines the amount of orders from different suppliers. In order to measure the relative efficiency, the study uses the method developed by Klimberg and Ratick (2008) [Klimberg, R. K., & Ratick, S. J. (2008). Modeling data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficient location/allocation decisions. Computers & Operations Research, 35(2), 457-474.]. In addition, to handle the uncertainty, the study uses the robust optimization technique developed by Molvey and Ruszczy?ski (1995) [Mulvey, J. M., & Ruszczy?ski, A. (1995). A new scenario decomposition method for large-scale stochastic optimization. Operations research, 43(3), 477-490.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model is capable of providing efficient solutions under various uncertain conditions.
This paper studies the channel coordination between a supplier and a retailer with price and sales effort dependent demand. By means of game theory, we analyze price and sales effort decisions of the centralized supply chain. Then we consider three different contracts under decentralized model, i.e., wholesale price contract, cost-sharing contract and a two-part tariff contract, in which the supplier offers a contract comprising a wholesale price and a lump-sum fee to the retailer to coordinate the supply chain. Finally, we analyze the results to compare the equilibrium decisions under different contract scenarios. Our results show that both the wholesale price contract and the cost-sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain while the two-part tariff contract can effectively coordinate the supply chain.
This paper investigates credit allocation policy making and its effect on economic development using bi-level programming. There are two challenging problems in bi-level credit allocation; at the first level government/public related institutes must allocate the credit strategically concerning sustainable development to regions and industrial sectors. At the second level, there are agent banks, which should allocate the credit tactically to individual applicants based on their own profitability and risk using their credit scoring models. There is a conflict of interest between these two stakeholders but the cooperation is inevitable. In this paper, a new bi-level programming formulation of the leader-follower game in association with sustainable development theory in the first level and data mining classifier at the second level is used to mathematically model the problem. The model is applied to a national development fund (NDF) as a government related organization and one of its agent banks. A new algorithm called Bi-level Genetic fuzzy apriori Algorithm (BGFAA) is introduced to solve the bilateral model. Experimental results are presented and compared with a unilateral policy making scenario by the leader. Findings show that although the objective functions of the leader are worse in the bilateral scenario but agent banks collaboration is attracted and guaranteed.
The designers often face the problem of choosing the best fitted material for a specific application from a huge array of available alternatives while simultaneously fulfilling all the given design requirements. For dealing with the material selection problems, a systematic and efficient approach is thus necessary. Selection of an optimal material from among various alternatives based on different conflicting subjective as well as objective attributes can be defined as a typical multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. The material selection problems for diverse engineering applications have already been solved by the past researchers employing different MCDM approaches. In this paper, the feasibility of Q-analysis technique as an MCDM tool is explored for arriving at the most appropriate decision regarding materials selection. Its applicability is demonstrated with the help of four illustrative examples and its capability to provide almost accurate material selection decisions is also validated.
With regard to purchasing Tunisian IPOs shares, the current paper aims at considering two types of investors: a non-institutional investor and an institutional one. Each is concerned with placing a purchase order at the offer price during the subscription period. In line with the literature on IPOs, we attempted to determine the minimum price required by an investor allowing for recovering the initial investment, information costs, transaction costs, and the offsetting of shortfall. We expect that the initial return of an IPO share in the Tunisian market is positively related to the following factors: the number of non-institutional investors participating during the subscription period, the subscription ratio of institutional investors, the expected rate of return by investors, the gap between the closing date of the subscription period and the day following the announcement of the subscription result, the gap between the announcement of the subscription result and the first listing day, the number of trading days, the cost of information and the transaction costs. However, it is negatively related to other determinants, such as the discount level, the number of shares allocated for a non-institutional investor and the number of offered shares, which are allocated to non-institutional investors.
Advancement of network technology, quick growth of Internet and Internet based solutions lead many firms to apply online processes as well as electronic businesses. Internet based B2B E-C requires applying Internet and affiliated technologies for exchanging products, services and information. Implementation of business to business (B2B) requires long-term commitment of organizations. Carrying out research in this field is regarded as very important issue for recognizing effective factors on successful implementation and execution of B2B and determining current status of organization. This research deals with studying effective critical factors on successful implementation and execution of B2B. Factors are recognized through studying literature review and IT experts. Then, through case study (studying a vehicle manufacturing firm) and by using analytical network process (ANP), the importance of factor and their rank are determined. The factors that are regarded at this research are including: culture, commitment and support of senior management, government support, purposes, organizational strategies, trust, partial advantage and technical infrastructure. Results of research show that support and commitment of senior management are the highest priority factors.
Maintenance Quality Function Deployment (MQFD) is a model, which enhances the synergic power of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). One of the crucial and important steps during the implementation of MQFD is the determination of the importance or weightages of the critical factors (CF) and sub factors (SF). The CFs and SFs have to be compared precisely for the successful implementation of MQFD. The crisp pair-wise comparison in the conventional Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) may be insufficient to determine the degree of weightage of CFs and SFs where vagueness and uncetainties are associated. In this paper, a modification of AHP based MQFD by incorporating fuzzy operations is proposed, which can improve the accuracy of determination of the weightages. A case study showing the applicability of this method is illustrated in this paper.
Six Sigma is a philosophy of unremitting improvement and excellence in all aspects. The concept is a satisfactory modification process tool through customers, continuous improvement and stakeholder participation. Six Sigma is considered as statistical analysis, assessment scales and customer-oriented production accomplishments and it leads to defect production reduction. This paper recommends an approach to select Six Sigma projects using fuzzy multiple attribute decision making techniques composed with another concoction tool. Through insightful quarrying of literature, rudimentary criteria for selecting Six Sigma projects were revealed. The fundamental criteria were identified consuming the fuzzy hypothesis test. Having identified the most indispensable criteria, the weight of criteria were determined. Appling FANP techniques. Having calculated the weights pertinent to criteria through three methods, SAW, TOPSIS, and Fuzzy VIKOR, Six Sigma projects were introduced and prioritized. Applying the three methods engendered various results, which required the application of an amalgamation technique, entitled as Borda and it helped to clarify the final project rate.
Nowadays, selection of an optimal project has become a challenging task for managers and decision makers. Project selection for a decision maker can be viewed as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem, which requires consideration of a number of conflicting, tangible and intangible selection criteria. Moreover, decision makers tend to use linguistic terms for expressing their assessments because of their different backgrounds and preferences, some of which may be uncertain and incomplete. Hence, this paper focuses on developing a hybrid fuzzy MCDM approach by combining AHP and VIKOR for solving the project selection problem. Finally, A numerical example is proposed to illustrate an application of the proposed method.