The classical production-inventory model assumes that both demand and set-up costs are constant. However, in real manufacturing environment, managers usually embark on continuous improvement programmes that often lead to more effective use of tools and machineries and consequently reduction in set-up costs. In fact, constant emphasis on reduction of set-up costs is usually cited as one of the factors responsible for the efficiency of Japanese manufacturing methods. On the other hand, the demand for seasonal product is often characterized by a mixture of time-dependent patterns over the entire season. This paper investigates the effect of learning-based reduction in set-up costs on the optimal schedules and costs of a production-inventory system for deteriorating seasonal products. The demand pattern is a general three-phase ramp-type demand function that represents the various phases of demand commonly observed in many seasonal products in the market. A two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the model more generalized and realistic. The study further presents two different multi-period production strategies that can ensure a fast-response to customers’ demand and compare them with the usual single period strategy. The Numerical example and sensitivity analysis shows that learning-based reduction in set-up costs leads to higher production frequency and shorter production runs which are vital aspects of the just-in-time (JIT) philosophy.
The aim of this paper is to present a new genetic algorithm approach for large scale multiple resource-constrained project-scheduling problems (RCPSP). It also presents a heuristic approach to achieve proper solutions for large scale problems. This research area is very common in industry especially when a set of activities needs to be finished as soon as possible subject to two sets of constraints, precedence constraints and resource constraints. The emphasis in this research is on investigating the complexity of scheduling problems and developing a new GA approach to solve this problem in such a way that the advantages of GA are appropriately utilized by applying a novel method to reduce the complexity of the problem. Computational results are also reported for the most famous classical problems taken from the operational research literature.
Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP) are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA) is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R) heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.
Rotating discs work mostly at high angular velocity. High speed results in large centrifugal forces in discs and induces large stresses and deformations. Minimizing weight of such disks yields various benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. In order to attain a certain and reliable analysis, disk with variable thickness and density is considered. Semi-analytical solutions for the elastic stress distribution in rotating annular disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities are obtained under plane stress assumption by authors in previous works. The optimum disk profile for minimum weight design is achieved by the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions. Inequality constrain equation is used in optimization to make sure that maximum von Mises stress is always less than yielding strength of the material of the disk.
This paper presents our research works on integrating disassembly sequence planning with cost model for end-of-life (EOL) product. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to optimize disassembly sequence of the EOL product. We integrate a traveling salesman problem approach with genetic algorithm in finding the optimal disassembly sequence for disassembling the EOL product. Based on this optimal sequence, the second objective is to identify the best EOL option. We employ EOL profits and net present value of parts and subassemblies of the EOL product to determine the best EOL option of components and parts of the EOL product. The predicted results showed that the developed cost model has reached a good correspondence with the established methods.
In this paper, a single facility centre location problem with a line barrier, which is uniformly distributed on a given horizontal route in the plane is proposed. The rectilinear distance metric is considered. The objective function minimizes the maximum expected barrier distance from the new facility to all demand points in the plane. An algorithm to solve the desired problem is proposed where a mixed integer nonlinear programming needs to be solved. The proposed model of this paper is solved using some already existed benchmark problem in the literature and the results are compared with other available methods.
Supplier evaluation and selection has been a vital issue of strategic importance for long time. Different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approaches have been proposed by the researchers in past, to solve the supplier evaluation and selection problem. In this paper, we present a review of various MCDM methodologies reported in the literature for solving the supplier evaluation and selection process. The review is solely based on sixty-eight research articles, including eight review articles in the academic literature from 2000 to 2011. We try to find out the most prevalent approach in the articles and thereby present the future scope of arriving at an optimal solution to the problem, based on the specifications, the strategies and the requirements of the buyers. The study presents that with the change in processes and the requirements, how the approach of the manufacturing industry has shifted from striving for operational effectiveness to the strategic partnership in the dyadic relationship.
In the current global economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This paper develops a two-echelon (manufacturer-buyer) supply chain model taking into account inflation and time value of money. The present value of the total cost of the supply chain is derived when the manufacturer produces a number of lots, the sum of which is equal to the buyer’s total demand over a finite time horizon and the manufacturer’s each production lot is delivered to the buyer in n shipments. The optimal solution of the model is obtained for a numerical example after some adjustments (required to exhibit feasibility) in the derived solution. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out in order to examine the effects of changes in model-parameters on the optimal solution.
This paper presents the experimental study, development of mathematical model and parametric optimization for surface roughness in turning D2 steel using TiN coated carbide insert using Taguchi parameter design and response surface methodology. The experimental plan and analysis was based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array taking cutting speed (v), feed (f) and depth of cut (d) as important cutting parameters. The influence of the machining parameters on the surface finish has also been investigated and the optimum cutting condition for minimizing the surface roughness is evaluated. The optimal parametric combination for TiN coated cutting insert is found to be v3-f1-d3. The ANOVA result shows that feed the most significant process parameter on surface roughness followed by depth of cut. The cutting speed is found to be insignificant from the study. The RSM model shows good accuracy between predicted values and experimental values with 95% confidence intervals and adequate. It is concluded that the developed RSM model can be effectively utilized to predict the surface roughness in turning D2 steel.
Industrial robots are mainly employed to perform repetitive and hazardous production jobs, multi-shift operations etc. to reduce the delivery time, improve the work environment, lower the production cost and even increase the product range to fulfill the customers’ needs. When a choice is to be made from among several alternative robots for a given industrial application, it is necessary to compare their performance characteristics in a decisive way. As the industrial robot selection problem involves multiple conflicting criteria and a finite set of candidate alternatives, different multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods can be effectively used to solve such type of problem. In this paper, ten most popular MCDM methods are considered and their relative performance are compared with respect to the rankings of the alternative robots as engaged in some industrial pick-n-place operation. It is observed that all these methods give almost the same rankings of the alternative robots, although the performance of WPM, TOPSIS and GRA methods are slightly better than the others. It can be concluded that for a given industrial robot selection problem, more attention is to be paid on the proper selection of the relevant criteria and alternatives, not on choosing the most appropriate MCDM method to be employed.