Two procedures to evaluate fracture resistance of notched components are proposed in this contribution: the Strain Energy Density (SED) over a control volume and the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM). With the aim to simplify the application of the two fracture criteria, the concept of the ‘equivalent local mode I’ is presented. The control volume of the SED criterion and the cohesive crack of the CZM, have been rotated along the notch edge and centered with respect to the point where the elastic principal stress is maximum. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental results from U and V shaped notches under three point bending with notch root radius ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 mm. In parallel the loading conditions vary, from pure mode I to a prevailing mode II. All specimens were made of PMMA and tested at -60°C. The good agreement between theory and experimental results adds further confidence to the proposed fracture criteria.
The present paper summarizes the results from uniaxial-tension stress-controlled fatigue tests performed at different temperatures up to 650°C on Cu-Be specimens. Two geometries are considered: hourglass shaped and plates weakened by a central hole (Cu-Be alloy). The motivation of the present work is that, at the best of authors’ knowledge, only a limited number of papers on these alloys under high-temperature fatigue are available in the literature and no results deal with notched components. The Cu-Be specimens fatigue data are re-analyzed in terms of the mean value of the Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged over a control volume. Thanks to the SED approach it is possible to summarize in a single scatter-band all the fatigue data, independently of the specimen geometry.
In this paper, a volume criterion based on a simple scalar quantity, the mean value of the strain energy (SED), has been used to assess the static strength of notched components made of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The local-strain-energy based approach has been applied to a well-documented set of experimental data recently reported in the literature. Data refer to blunt U-notched cylindrical specimens of commercial PMMA subjected to static loads and characterised by a large variability of notch tip radius (from 0.67 mm to 2.20 mm). Critical loads obtained experimentally have been compared with the theoretical ones, estimated by keeping constant the mean value of the strain energy in a well-defined small size volume. In addition, some new tests dealing with V-notched specimens with end holes have been carried out to investigate the effect of the notch opening angle.
In this research, the flow stress of dual layer austenitic-martensitic functionally graded steels (FGSs) under hot deformation loading has been modelled considering the Zener-Hollomon constitutive equations as a function of temperature and strain rate. Functionally graded austenitic-martensitic steels consist of austenite (?) and martensite (M) phases placed on each other in different configurations and produced via Electro Slag Remelting (ESR). The boundary layers properties are obtained by experimental investigation on single phase materials. Finally, the theoretical model is compared with the experimental results measured in the temperature range 1000-1200 °C and strain rate 0.01-1 s-1 and a good agreement is found.
Functionally Graded Steels (FGSs) are possible solutions to improve the properties of steels made by Martensite and Bainite brittle phases. These phases are usually present in the interface between the carbon ferritic steel and the stainless austenitic steel. FGSs materials are widely investigated in the recent literature but only few works have been devoted to investigate the impact energy in the case of crack arresters. To partially fill this gap, the effect of the distance between the notch tip and the position of the median phase on the Charpy impact energy is investigated in the present paper. The results show that when the notch apex is close to the median layer the impact energy reaches its maximum value due to the increment of the absorbed energy by plastic deformation ahead of the notch tip. On the other hand, when the notch apex is far from the median layer, the impact energy strongly decreases. Keeping into account the relationship between the Charpy impact energy and the plastic volume size, a new theoretical model has been developed to link the composite impact energy with the distance from the notch apex to the median phase. The results of the new model show a sound agreement with previous results taken from the literature.