Beams are the constituent elements of several machine parts and sophisticated structures. In this paper, efforts are made to develop suitable methods that can serve as the basis to detect crack location and to crack size from measured axial vibration data. This method is used to address the inverse problem of assessing the crack location and crack size in various beam structure. The method is based on measurement of axial natural frequencies, which are global parameter and can be easily measured from any point on the structure. In theoretical analysis, the relationship between the natural frequencies, crack location, and crack size has been developed. For identification of crack location and crack size, it was shown that data on the variation of the first two natural frequencies is sufficient. The experimental analysis is done to verify the practical applicability of the theoretical method developed.