Optimal production strategy for deteriorating items with varying demand pattern under inflation
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 449-466
Ibraheem Abdul and Atsuo Murata PDF (305 K)
Abstract: This paper presents production-inventory models for deteriorating items with increasing-steady-decreasing demand pattern under the effect of inflation and time value of money. This type of demand behavior can be observed in some fashion products or seasonal products in general. Shortages are allowed with partial backlogging of demand and a two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the models more generalized and realistic. The models generate optimal values of initial production run time, onset of shortages, production recommencement time, and total production quantity that minimizes the total relevant costs of production and inventory for any given set of system parameters. Various possible production strategies available for items with variable demand pattern are examined to determine the optimal production strategy. The discounted cash flow approach and trust region optimization methods are used to obtain the optimal results. The Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis show that the optimal production strategy may vary with changes in system parameters.
Keywords: Production, Inventory, Varying demand pattern, Weibull deterioration, Partial backlogging, Inflation
Pricing for freight carriers in a competitive environment: A game theory approach
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 467-478
Marzieh Mozafari and Behrooz Karimi PDF (216 K)
Abstract: In recent years, development of freight transport industry has led to fierce competition among transportation companies and therefore carrier-pricing issue has received more attention by researchers. This paper studies pricing and fleet management decisions for full-truckload freight carriers' competition on a road network. We propose a game theoretic approach under two scenarios. In the first, we model the non-cooperative game wherein the carriers announce their prices simultaneously in competition; in the second, we allow the carriers to share their information and announce their prices while participating in cooperation. We show that carriers can reach the highest profit level in the latter scenario; subsequently, a bargaining game is discussed as a scheme to share the extra joint profit.
Keywords: Freight transportation, Carrier pricing, Fleet management, Competition, Cooperation, Game theory
Simultaneous optimization of material removal rate and surface roughness for WEDM of WC-Co composite using grey relational analysis along with Taguchi method
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 479-490
Kamal Jangra, Sandeep Grover and Aman Aggarwal PDF (267 K)
Abstract: In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of WC-Co composite has been reported. Influence of taper angle, peak current, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire tension and dielectric flow rate were investigated for material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) during intricate machining of a carbide block. In order to optimize MRR and SR simultaneously, grey relational analysis (GRA) has been employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multiple machining characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the taper angle and pulse-on time are the most significant parameters affecting the multiple machining characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-machining characteristics.
Keywords: Tungsten carbide composite, wire electrical discharge machining, Taguchi method, grey relational analysis, multi-characteristics optimization
A mathematical model for weighted tardy jobs scheduling problem with a batched delivery system
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 491-498
Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh, Amir Hamidinia and Ayatollah Karamouzian PDF (164 K)
Abstract: This study investigates minimizing the number of weighted tardy jobs on a single machine when jobs are delivered to either customers or next station in various size batches. In real world, this issue may happen within a supply chain in which delivering goods to customers entails costs. Under such circumstances, keeping completed jobs to deliver in batches may result in reducing delivery costs; nevertheless, it may add to the tardy jobs, which in turn leads to higher costs. In literature review, minimizing the number of weighted tardy jobs is known as NP-Hard problem, so the present issue aiming at minimizing the costs of delivering, in addition to the aforementioned objective function, remains an NP-Hard problem. In this study, the issue is assessed where the customers are numerous, and a mathematical model is presented. We also present a meta-heuristic method based on simulated annealing (SA) and the performance of the SA is examined versus exact solutions.
Keywords: Scheduling, Single-machine, Tardy jobs, Batched delivery system, SA algorithm
Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 499-508
Adekunle Ibrahim Musa PDF (98 K)
Abstract: This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%), 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%), and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%). But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4%) when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th) of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.
Keywords: Anthropometric dimensions, Schoolchildren, Classroom furniture, Ergonomic
A hybrid model for multi-objective capacitated facility location network design problem
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 509-522
Mohammad saeed JabalAmeli and Marzieh Mortezaei PDF (340 K)
Abstract: One of the primary concerns on many traditional capacitated facility location/network problems is to consider transportation and setup facilities in one single objective function. This simple assumption may lead to misleading solutions since the cost of transportation is normally considered for a short period time and, obviously, the higher cost of setting up the facilities may reduce the importance of the transportation cost/network. In this paper, we introduce capacitated facility location/network design problem (CFLNDP) with two separate objective functions in forms of multi-objective with limited capacity. The proposed model is solved using a new hybrid algorithm where there are two stages. In the first stage, locations of facilities and design of fundamental network are determined and in the second stage demands are allocated to the facilities. The resulted multi-objective problem is solved using Lexicography method for a well-known example from the literature with 21 node instances. We study the behaviour of the resulted problem under different scenarios in order to gain insight into the behaviour of the model in response to changes in key problem parameters.
Keywords: Facility Location, Network design, Hybrid algorithm, Simulated annealing algorithm
Optimal ordering and pricing policy for price sensitive stock–dependent demand under progressive payment scheme
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 523-532
Nita H. Shah, Amisha R. Patel and Kuo-Ren Lou PDF (95 K)
Abstract: The terminal condition of inventory level to be zero at the end of the cycle time adopted by Soni and Shah (2008, 2009) is not viable when demand is stock-dependent. To rectify this assumption, we extend their model for (1) an ending – inventory to be non-zero; (2) limited floor space; (3) a profit maximization model; (4) selling price to be a decision variable, and (5) units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate. The algorithm is developed to search for the optimal decision policy. The working of the proposed model is supported with a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate critical parameters.
Keywords: Inventory, Deterioration, Marketing decision, Inventory level dependent demand rate, Partially backlogged shortage, Non-linear programming
A new approach for cell formation and scheduling with assembly operations and product structure
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 533-546
Mir Bahador Aryanezhad, Jamal Aliabadi and Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam PDF (180 K)
Abstract: In this paper, a new formulation model for cellular manufacturing system (CMS) design problem is proposed. The proposed model of this paper considers assembly operations and product structure so that it includes the scheduling problem with the formation of manufacturing cells, simultaneously. Since the proposed model is nonlinear, a linearization method is applied to gain optimal solution when the model is solved using direct implementation of mixed integer programming. A new genetic algorithm (GA) is also proposed to solve the resulted model for large-scale problems. We examine the performance of the proposed method using the direct implementation and the proposed GA method. The results indicate that the proposed GA approach could provide efficient assembly and product structure for real-world size problems.
Keywords: Cellular manufacturing system, Assembly and product structure Scheduling, Group technology, Mixed integer programming, Genetic algorithm
A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp.547-562
A. K. Bhunia and Ali Akbar Shaikh PDF (262 K)
Abstract: This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.
Keywords: Inventory, Deterioration, Marketing decision, Inventory level dependent demand rate, Partially backlogged shortage, Non-linear programming
A new stochastic mixed integer programming to design integrated cellular manufacturing system: A supply chain framework
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 563-574
Vahid Reza Ghezavati PDF (180 K)
Abstract: This research defines a new application of mathematical modeling to design a cellular manufacturing system integrated with group scheduling and layout aspects in an uncertain decision space under a supply chain characteristics. The aim is to present a mixed integer programming (MIP) which optimizes cell formation, scheduling and layout decisions, concurrently where the suppliers are required to operate exceptional products. For this purpose, the time in which parts need to be operated on machines and also products' demand are uncertain and explained by set of scenarios. This model tries to optimize expected holding cost and the costs regarded to the suppliers network in a supply chain in order to outsource exceptional operations. Scheduling decisions in a cellular manufacturing framework is treated as group scheduling problem, which assumes that all parts in a part group are operated in the same cell and no inter-cellular transfer is required. An efficient hybrid method made of genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) will be proposed to solve such a complex problem under an optimization rule as a sub-ordinate section. This integrative combination algorithm is compared with global solutions and also, a benchmark heuristic algorithm introduced in the literature. Finally, performance of the algorithm will be verified through some test problems.
Keywords: Cellular manufacturing, Stochastic MIP, Uncertain processing time, Supplier network
The impact of Weibull data and autocorrelation on the performance of the Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average control charts
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 575-582
Gary Black, James Smith and Sabrina Wells PDF (150 K)
Abstract: Many real-world processes generate autocorrelated and/or Weibull data. In such cases, the independence and/or normality assumptions underlying the Shewhart and EWMA control charts are invalid. Although data transformations exist, such tools would not normally be understood or employed by naive practitioners. Thus, the question arises, “What are the effects on robustness whenever these charts are used in such applications?” Consequently, this paper examines and compares the performance of these two control charts when the problem (the model) is subjected to autocorrelated and/or Weibull data. A variety of conditions are investigated related to the magnitudes of various parameters related to the process shift, the autocorrelation coefficient and the Weibull shape parameter. Results indicate that the EWMA chart outperforms the Shewhart in 62% of the cases, particularly those cases with low to moderate autocorrelation effects. The Shewhart chart outperforms the EWMA chart in 35% of the cases, particularly those cases with high autocorrelation and zero or high process shift effects.
Keywords: Statistical process control, Normality assumption, Independence assumption, Autocorrelation, Weibull
Simple assembly line balancing problem under task deterioration
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 583-592
M. Emrani Noushabadi, U. Bahalke, K. Dolatkhahi, S. Dolatkhahi and A. Makui PDF (151 K)
Abstract: This paper introduces the effect of task deterioration in simple assembly line balancing problem. In many realistic assembly lines, a deterioration task is considered when a task is started earlier than the assigned time since the station time is constant and the earliness of the task does not reduce the cycle time. This phenomenon is known as deteriorating tasks. Therefore, we seek an optimal assignment and schedule of tasks in workstations, in order to minimize the number of stations for a given cycle time, which is known as SALBP-1. For this purpose, a mathematical model is proposed. Since the pure SALBP-1 is proved to be NP-hard and considering task deterioration complicates problem further, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving such problem. Several well-known test problems are solved to study the performance of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Assembly line balancing Scheduling, Task deterioration, Genetic algorithm
A measurement method of routing flexibility in manufacturing systems
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 593-616
F. Zammori, M. Braglia and M. Frosolinia PDF (351 K)
Abstract: This paper focuses on routing flexibility, which is the ability to manufacture a part type via several routes and/or to perform different operations on more than one machine. Specifically, the paper presents a comprehensive method for the measurement of routing flexibility, in a generic manufacturing system. The problem is approached in a modular way, starting from a basic set of flexibility indexes. These are progressively extended to include more comprehensive and complex routing attributes, such as: the average efficiency, the range and the homogeneous distribution of the alternative routes. Two procedures are finally proposed to compare manufacturing systems in terms of routing flexibility. The first one uses a vectorial representation of the previously defined indexes and the second one is based on data envelopment analysis, a multi-criteria decision making approach. The paper concludes with a numerical example, supported by discrete event simulation, which validates the proposed approach.
Keywords: DEA, Flexibility, Manufacturing systems Operational performance, Routing
Multi-objective group scheduling with learning effect in the cellular manufacturing system
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 617-630
Mohammad Taghi Taghavi-fard, Hassan Javanshir, Mohammad Ali Roueintan and Ehsan Soleimany PDF (242 K)
Abstract: Group scheduling problem in cellular manufacturing systems consists of two major steps. Sequence of parts in each part-family and the sequence of part-family to enter the cell to be processed. This paper presents a new method for group scheduling problems in flow shop systems where it minimizes makespan (Cmax) and total tardiness. In this paper, a position-based learning model in cellular manufacturing system is utilized where processing time for each part-family depends on the entrance sequence of that part. The problem of group scheduling is modeled by minimizing two objectives of position-based learning effect as well as the assumption of setup time depending on the sequence of parts-family. Since the proposed problem is NP-hard, two meta heuristic algorithms are presented based on genetic algorithm, namely: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and non-dominated rank genetic algorithm (NRGA). The algorithms are tested using randomly generated problems. The results include a set of Pareto solutions and three different evaluation criteria are used to compare the results. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms are quite efficient to solve the problem in a short computational time.
Keywords: Cellular manufacturing system, Group scheduling, Multi-objective optimization, Learning effect Multi-objective genetic algorithm
A hybrid multiple attribute decision making method for solving problems of industrial environment
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 631-644
Dinesh Singh and R. Venkata Rao PDF (180 K)
Abstract: The selection of appropriate alternative in the industrial environment is an important but, at the same time, a complex and difficult problem because of the availability of a wide range of alternatives and similarity among them. Therefore, there is a need for simple, systematic, and logical methods or mathematical tools to guide decision makers in considering a number of selection attributes and their interrelations. In this paper, a hybrid decision making method of graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Three examples are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed GTMA-AHP method and the results are compared with the results obtained using other decision making methods.
Keywords: Multiple attribute decision making, Graph theory and matrix approach, Analytical hierarchy process, Electroplating system selection, Robot selection, Welding process selection
Hat and squeeze functions, a way for making precise algorithms
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 645-656
Elham Shadkam and Abdollah Aghaiea PDF (304 K)
Abstract: Random variates play key role in any simulation system and there are different algorithms to generate random variates. One of the best algorithms for generating random variates is uniform fractional part algorithm. The algorithm has high performance in terms of efficiency, speed and simplicity. Although the algorithm has useful results, it is an approximate algorithm. In this article, the approximate form of the algorithm has been studied, and some suggestions have also been presented. Through acceptance-rejection approach and hat and squeeze function, the approximate algorithm is transformed to near exact algorithm. The proposed model of this paper has been examined and compared with the traditional one and the preliminary results indicate that it performs better than the other existing algorithms.
Keywords: Random Variate Generation, Hat and Squeeze Functions Uniform Fractional Part, Algorithm, Approximate State
Integrated inventory models with two–level credit policy and a price negotiation scenario for price–sensitive Stock–dependent demand
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 657-670
Nita H. Shah and Amisha R. Patel PDF (304 K)
Abstract: In this research, the integrated inventory models are developed for price–sensitive stock– dependent demand and delay in payments are permissible. Two level trade credit police in the vendor–buyer and buyer–customer is considered. An easy–to–use solution algorithm is derived for the integrated models to determine the buyer’s optimal pricing and ordering strategy. A negotiation scenario is incorporated to distribute the extra profit between the vendor and buyer. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to validate the proposed models. It is observed that the total joint profit of the integrated system can increase even if the price discount is offered to the buyer in proposed models.
Keywords: Integrated inventory system, Price–negotiation factor, Price–sensitive, Stock–dependent demand
A multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm for a capacitated hub covering location problem
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 671-688
M. Mohammadi, R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam , H. Rostami PDF (243 K)
Abstract: The hub location problem appears in a variety of applications, including airline systems, cargo delivery systems and telecommunication network design. Hub location problems deal with finding the location of hub facilities and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub facilities. In this paper, a new model for the capacitated single allocation hub covering location problem is presented. Instead of using capacity constraints to limit the amount of flow received by the hubs, the second objective function is introduced to minimize service times in the hubs. The service time in the hubs includes the waiting time of received flows in a queue and the time to get services. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, a new weight-based multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm (MOICA) is designed to find near-optimal solutions. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the solutions obtained by the MOICA are compared by the exact solutions of the mathematical programming model.
Keywords: Hub covering location, Multi-objective problem, Capacitated single allocation Service time, Imperialist competitive algorithm
Mathematical modelling and performance optimization of CO2 cooling system of a fertilizer plant
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 689-698
Sanjeev Kumar and P. C. Tewari PDF (320 K)
Abstract: This paper discusses the mathematical modeling and performance optimization of CO2 cooling system of a fertilizer plant using genetic algorithm. The fertilizer plant comprises of various systems viz. shell gasification and carbon recovery, desulphurization, co-shift conversion, decarbonation- CO2 cooling, CO2 removal, nitrogen wash and ammonia synthesis, etc. One of the most important functionaries of a fertilizer plant is CO2 cooling system. The CO2 cooling system of a fertilizer plant has five main subsystems, arranged in series. We propose a mathematical model, which considers exponential distribution for the probable failures and repairs. We also use probabilistic approach and derive differential equations based on Markov birth-death process. These equations are then solved using normalizing conditions to determine the steady state availability of the CO2 cooling system. The performance of each subsystem of CO2 cooling system of a fertilizer plant is also optimized using genetic algorithm. The results of the proposed model of this paper is useful to the plant management for the timely execution of proper maintenance decisions and hence to enhance the system performance.
Keywords: Performance optimization, CO2 cooling system, Genetic algorithm, Meta-heuristic
Retailer’s inventory policy for deteriorating items under partial trade credit policy
, Volume 2, Issue, 3, pp. 699-714
Alok Kumar, K. K. Kaanodiaya and R. R. Pachauri PDF (280 K)
Abstract: This paper proposes a mathematical model for retailer’s optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items under the conditions of permissible delay in payment in supply chain coordination. In this paper, supplier offers full trade credit to his/her retailer and the retailer, in turn, provides the partial trade credit to his/her customer. This research article helps the retailer determine the optimal cost, more accurately. The primary objective is to minimize the retailer’s cost and to determine the optimal inventory policy for retailer. The results of this article generalize some already published results by incorporating deterioration on inventory items. We use some numerical examples to analyze the effects of various parameters on retailer’s inventory policy.
Keywords: Inventory, EOQ, Inventory, Partial trade credit, Deterioration, Supply chain,
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