The relationship between family-to-work conflict of employee and co-workers' turnover intention
, pages 1-10
Tavakol Sharafi and Zohreh dehdashti shahrokh PDF (261 K)
Abstract: Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work conflict (FWC) experienced by the employee also affects the turnover intention of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWC has an effect on the co-worker's turnover intention through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of 154 co-worker dyads, we found that the employee FWC was positively related to co-worker turnover intention through the crossover of (reduced) work engagement. Results show that family matters at work, affecting employee. In addition, employee's job engagement was positively related to his (her) co-worker job engagement and it was negatively related co-worker turnover intention and employee's FWC was not positively related to co-worker turnover intention trough the crossover of (reduced) feelings of engagement.
Keywords: Work–family conflict, Employee engagement, Turnover intention,
A two level DEA in project based organizations
, Pages 11-20
Mehrdad Hamidi Hedayat and Morteza Bagherpour PDF (286 K)
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of a project based organization using a two level fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique in project based organizations. In order to determine the required inputs and outputs, important indicators are selected using both expert judgments and statistical analysis and a two-level DEA model is adapted. In this model, by considering different inputs and outputs through a hierarchical process, a large number of sub indicators are provided and rolled up to a higher level. Since inputs and outputs are combinations of qualitative and quantitative indicators, fuzzy logic is also included through the modeling procedure. In addition, since the exact amount cannot be attributed to the indicators, the proposed model uses interval values for the project life cycle. Finally, some of the projects are evaluated throughout the approach proposed in this paper.
Keywords: Two level DEA, Fuzzy, Project based organization, Performance evaluation
An entropy-LVQ system for S&P500 downward shifts forecasting
, Pages 21-28
Salim Lahmiri PDF (140 K)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to predict the S&P500 down moves with technical analysis indicators using learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural networks and probabilistic neural networks (PNN). In addition, entropy-based input selection technique is employed to improve the prediction accuracies. The out-of-sample simulations show that LVQ outperforms PNN. In addition, the Entropy-LVQ system achieved higher accuracy in comparison with the literature.
Keywords: Stock market, Neural networks, Loss limit, Forecasting
A goal programming method for deriving fuzzy priorities of criteria from inconsistent fuzzy comparison matrices
, Pages 29-42
Mohammad Izadikhah PDF (163 K)
Abstract: Decision making problem is the process of finding the best option from all of the feasible alternatives. One of the most important concepts in decision making process is to identify the weights of criteria. In real-world situation, because of incomplete or non-obtainable information, the data (attributes) are often not deterministic and can be treated in forms of fuzzy numbers. This paper investigates a method for deriving the weights of criteria from the pair-wise comparison matrix with fuzzy elements. Finding the weights of criteria has been one of the most important issues in the field of decision-making and the present method uses goal programming to solve the resulted model. In addition, using a ranking function we convert each obtained fuzzy weight to a crisp one, which makes it possible to compare the criteria. The proposed model of this paper is supported by several examples and a case study.
Keywords: Triangular fuzzy number, Fuzzy pair-wise comparison matrix, Goal programming, Ranking function
Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption
, Pages 43-54
M.A. Azarmehr,S. Rezapour, and R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam PDF (1186 K)
Abstract: This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.
Keywords: Decentralized supply chain, Competition Sourcing and pricing strategies, Supply disruption
Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing
, Pages 55-66
Saeed Mirzamohammadiand Forough Basirat Fard PDF (250 K)
Abstract: In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.
Keywords: Productivity, Customer relationship management, EFQM, BSC
A domestic model for successful implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in Iranian manufacturing enterprises
, Pages 67-78
Mohammad Rahmaniand Mohammad Reza Taghva PDF (233 K)
Abstract: This research investigates the human-behavioral dimension of technology acceptance in enterprises. It is evident that accepting a technology depends on the underlying circumstances of the environment. We have approached this issue from two different angles of social and technological architecture. The research tries to explore proper enterprise architecture for ERP system acceptance. Social Architecture (SA) is defined as the set of circumstances that makes people behave in a particular way. So behavior of persons (employees of an enterprise) can be a function of SA. Hence acceptance of a system can be dictated by SA and manipulating SA can result in desirable success for a technology system. We have achieved various variables of social architecture and have examined their relevance to system acceptance and success in related enterprises (research domain) beside technological architecture variables. The results have indicated that a special form of social and technological architecture can lead to success for ERP system in the enterprises of the research domain. This gave us a model of architecture.
Keywords: Social architecture, ERP, Human behavioral,
Applying the fuzzy ART algorithm to distribution network design
, Pages 79-86
Mazaher Ghorbani,Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Jafar Razmi and S. Mohammad Arabzad PDF (448 K)
Abstract: Distribution network design is an important issue in supply chain management and plays an important role in making new market development. Because of JIT philosophy, most of managers now have focused on designing appropriate distribution networks. Thus, categorizing distributors and selecting the best ones are crucial for companies. This paper provides a new method to categorize and select distributors. The fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) algorithm is utilized to categorize distributors according to their similarity. To improve the performance of the algorithm, we train the algorithm using the past data. Finally, a numerical example is illustrated to examine the validity of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Distribution network, Fuzzy ART, Categorizing, Partner selection
Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs
, Pages 87-92
Amir Ali Bakhshi and Mohammad Reza Soleymani Yazdi PDF (250 K)
Abstract: Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.
Keywords: Maintenance engineering, Weibull distribution, Rail maintenance, Railroad industry
A robust AHP-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency: An application of airport industry
, Pages 93-100
Amin Foroughi and Mohammad Javad Esfahani PDF (87 K)
Abstract: Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been an important topic of research among many researchers. Data envelopment analysis has been one of the most important techniques for measuring the efficiency of different units. However, there are some limitations on using such technique and some people prefer to use other methods such as analytical hierarchy process to measure the relative efficiencies. Besides, uncertainty in the input data is another issue, which makes some misleading results. In this paper, we present an integrated robust DEA-AHP to measure the relative efficiency of similar units. The proposed model of this is believed to capable of presenting better results in terms of efficiency compared with exclusive usage of DEA or AHP. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated for a real-world case study of Airport industry and the results are analyzed.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Analytical hierarchy process, DEA-AHP, Robust optimization
The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization
, Pages 101-106
Manouchehr Najafi and Ahmad Ahmadkhani PDF (87 K)
Abstract: Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.
Keywords: Operating budgeting, Accounting, Governmental budgeting, Performance measurement
Designing organizational excellence model for cellulose industry of Iran
, Pages 107-112
Seyed Abbas Kazemi, Jamshid Salehi Sadaghani, Gholam Hosein nikokar and Mohsen Mohammad Sadeghi PDF (65 K)
Abstract: Nowadays organizational excellence is regarded as the world’s most effective and progressive issue and many countries and organizations are attempting in the way of applying excellence. In this way, they attempt to improve such models and according to culture and sociopolitical conditions of each country, they attempt to design several models. The present research has been conducted with principal goal of designing organizational excellence model at cellulose industry of Iran. The study determines its components and aspects, priorities the aspects and components and analyzes relationship among different aspects of organizational excellence model at cellulose industry of Iran. The present research is an applied research with respect to goal and it is a descriptive-analytical method in terms of method. Statistical population of the present research covers all experts in the field of cellulose industry of Iran in which on this basis, the number of statistical sample was 207 people from managers to specialists. Results of research indicate that organizational excellence pattern of cellulose industry is a mixture of different aspects of technical, economic, inner environment, outer environment, motivation and behavioral processes.
Keywords: Organizational excellence, EFQM, TQM, LISREL, Cellulose Industry
A social work study on effects of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status
, Pages 113-118
Seyed Esmael Mosavi and Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (79 K)
Abstract: Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. There are different types of marriage such as traditional and modern ones. In traditional marriage, there are some marriage arrangements where man and woman can meet and talk for a short time and in case both parties are interested, marriage is initiated. There is also another type of marriage where girl and boy meet each other for a while, in some events, they may have some limited or unlimited relationships, and once they are interested in each other, they may marry each other. This relatively new type of marriage is popular in many western countries but it is still a controversial type of marriage in eastern countries. In this paper, we perform an empirical study on the effect of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status. The results indicate that pre-marriage relationship can reduce after marriage conflicts. The people who had pre-marriage had less aggressive behavior compared with the people who did not.
Keywords: Marriage, Pre-marriage relationship, Happiness
A social work study on emotional intelligence among different groups of people how are addicted to drugs
, Pages 119-124
Mohammad Reza Iravani and Seyed Esmael Mosavi PDF (79 K)
Abstract: Drug addiction has become serious problem among many developing countries. Many young people become addicted to different toxicated materials and as a result, they cannot contribute to their society. They lose any employment opportunity, cannot continue their education and lose their healthcare. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure emotional intelligence among different groups of people who were addicted to drugs. The study distributes a questionnaire among three groups consists of 117 questions and 15 scales. The first group of the survey is under community-based treatment, the second group includes the people who are members of a community with unknown identification and the third group covers outpatient patient who receive medication. The results of our survey indicate the level of emotional intelligence among the first group of our study is much more than the other groups.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Social work study, Drug addiction, Drug addiction recovery
The relationship between employees’ self-esteem and pertinacity
, Pages 125-130
Jafar Beikzad, Mostafa Abbasalizadeh,Saeid Ghorbannejad Maleki Roghie Fathi Bonabi PDF (67 K)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between employees’ of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10) self-esteem and pertinacity. For this reason, employee’s self-esteem was arranged in two dimensions, which are consistency solidity, emotional inconsistency and pertinacity. The questionnaire is based on Kobasa theory including three sides including commitment, control and defiance. There are two basic and three subsidiary theories. Employee of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10) is statistical society of this research, which includes 80 people. Reference to restricted volume of statistical society, total statistical society is concerned as under evaluation society. The tool of data gathering is two questionnaires, which are Aizenc’s self-esteem questionnaire and Kobasa’s pertinacity standard questionnaire, which are delivered for evaluating society after perpetuity and justifiability determination. The descriptive statistical methods are used for collected questionnaires analyze. Thus, the descriptive statistical method was used to summarize, to categorize and to interpret statistical data’s. In addition, statistical tests such as Pearson and Freidman’s coherency R are used to test the hypothesis of research. The results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity and its sides on employees of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10). They present maximum relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity control and minimum relationship between pertinacity commitment dimensions.
Keywords: Self steam, Pertinacity, Commitment, Control, Defiance
Determination and evaluation of the parameters influencing the virtual educational costs
, Pages 131-136
Parisa Mokhtar Maleki, Masoud Babakhani and Masoumeh Maleki PDF (141 K)
Abstract: E-learning has recently attracted many people specially those who cannot attend traditional educational programs for different reasons such as busy schedule, long distance, etc. There is also a growing interest among many public universities to develop such programs in addition to their regular business activities. The primary question is to know how much a program cost and what is the most important factors affecting the cost of e-learning. In this paper, we present an empirical study the measure the effects of different items on the cost of e-learning programs. The proposed study of this paper gathers the necessary cost components of three governmental universities located in city of Tehran/Iran. We choose ten different cost items for our analysis and using some statistical test determine the most important ones. The preliminary study of this paper indicates that seven cost items play essential role on determining the cost of e-learning, which includes utilities, internet connection and network, employee payment, software & licensing, payments of instructors and their assistants, hardware equipments and other overhead expenditures. This could help us determine the precise cost of e-learning using activity cost method.
Keywords: Activity based cost, E-learning, Distance learning, Regression analysis
An improved MCDM method for maintenance approach selection: A case study of auto industry
, Pages 137-146
Milad Aghaee and Safar Fazli PDF (118 K)
Abstract: In the current competitive environment, managers have been making attempts to convert organizations under their supervision into competitive and responsive through creating capability of timely delivery of quality products and services. In line with this, maintenance as a system plays an important role in achieving these goals. The maintenance strategy selection is a kind of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, which requires considering a large number of complex factors as multiple evaluation criteria. A robust MCDM method should consider the interactions among criteria. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method, which can deal with all kinds of interactions systematically. Moreover, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) not only can convert the relations between cause and effect of criteria into a visual structural model, but also can be used as a way to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. Hence, this paper proposes an effective solution based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach to help vehicle companies that need to evaluate and select maintenance strategies.
Keywords: Maintenance strategy, Multi-criteria decision making, Analytic network process (ANP), Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)
The relationship between dimensions of intellectual capital and knowledge creation: Case Study of the headquarters of national gas corporation of Iran
, Pages 147-160
Mehdi Sharafi, Yousof Mohammadi moghadam and Tavakol Sharafi PDF (221 K)
Abstract: Intellectual capital is the main property of any organization in knowledge-based economics. Knowledge is the fundamental principle of intellectual capital. Hence, it is the core of organizational capabilities. The aim of this study is to survey the relationship between dimensions of intellectual capital and knowledge creation in the headquarters of National Gas Corporation of Iran in the year 2010. The research method is descriptive – survey and follows practical objective. The research population consists of the formal staffs of the Corporation (managers, senior staff and other staff). We selected 261 people from the population randomly. We also used a reliable and valid questionnaire to gather data. We also used informative factor analysis to examine goodness of the model and we used SEM by Lisrel to confirm or reject the hypothesis in this study. The results show that all dimensions of intellectual capital have a significant impact on dimensions of knowledge creation, except for the effects of structural capital on knowledge combination as well as relational capital on knowledge internalization.
Keywords: Intellectual capital, Structural capital, Relational capital, Human capital, Knowledge creation
A new approach to analyze strategy map using an integrated BSC and FUZZY DEMATEL
, Pages 161-170
Seyed Abdollah Heydariyeh, Mojtaba Javidnia, and Amir Mehdiabadi PDF (277 K)
Abstract: Today, with ever-increasing competition in global economic conditions, the necessity of effective implementation of strategy map has become an inevitable and necessary. The strategy map represents a general and structured framework for strategic objectives and plays an important role in forming competitive advantages for organizations. It is important to find important factors influencing strategy map and prioritize them based on suitable factors. In this paper, we propose an integration of BSC and Fuzzy DEMATEL technique to rank different items influencing strategy of a production plan. The proposed technique is implemented for real-world case study of glass production.
Keywords: Container, Container terminal, Container transportation, Yard crane scheduling
Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model
, Pages 171-180
Hassan Javanshir, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Fatemi Ghomi, and Marjan Fatemi Ghomi PDF (752 K)
Abstract: The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.
Keywords: Container, Container terminal, Container transportation, Yard crane scheduling
A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students
, Pages 181-188
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (108 K)
Abstract: Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992). The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001), the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.
Keywords: Aggressive behavior, Social work study, Gender and aggressive behavior, Age and aggressive behavior
Measuring the units efficiency using an integrated DEA–AHP method: A case study of rivet producer
, Pages 189-196
Azim zarei, Amir Mehdiabadi and Mojtaba Javidnia PDF (98 K)
Abstract: The present research purpose is applying a compose method from DEA and AHP for removing this technique deficiency on assessing. For this reason, a compose method on basis of unsubjective double comparisons matrix has been used. At research process, after specifying the input and output variables and also a proper model for DEA, computational research method are dismounted at two stages: At the first stage, DEA model, is dismounted for two-by –two of items (branches), regardless to other items. At the second stage, double items comparisons matrix is provided from first stage results, that is performed total rating by resolving a unit – level AHP model. For this purpose, for dismounting this technique, we have attempted to assess rivet producer units efficiency, at one of the greatest industrial units in Iran. Results indicate unit number 3 with efficiency amount 0.12622 has allocated the highest rate to own and unit number 1 and 2 with efficiency 0.12404 has allocated the least rates to own.
Keywords: DEA-AHP, Data envelopment analysis, Analytical hierarchy process, Efficiency
Soft isostasy in geomorphology
, Pages 197-202
Mohsen Pourkhosravani Mohammad Hosain Ramesht , Seyed Ali Almodaresib, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini Ebrahim Abadi and Tayebeh Mohammadi Mohammad Abadi PDF (1033 K)
Abstract: Earth subsidence has been one of the important issues jeopardizing environment and there are many studies, which blame shortage of underground water resources for having uplift and subsidence. However, many argue such conclusion and believe that earth subsidence has been studied in the past without considering the changes in the hill over a long period. In this study, we use SAR interferometry study to investigate earth subsidence in dessert areas of Esfahan, Yazd and Ardakan, located in central part of Iran. The results indicate that there are more important issues affecting subsidence such as the uplift in the hills located the desert area. The results of the survey based on SAR interferometry reveals that subsidence occurs with the uplift in the adjacent hills, simultaneously. In other words, tectonic movements and soft isostasy play important role on earth subsidence.
Keywords: Earth subsidence, Geomorphology, Soft isostasy, Tectonic movements
A review on value creation in tourism industry
, Pages 203-212
Abolfazl Tajzadeh-Namin PDF (102 K)
Abstract: Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world and a major driver of growth for developed countries. To maximize the tourism sector's economic benefits‚ tourism development‚ planning and strategies not only have to focus on increasing demand and supply‚ but also they must concentrate on raising the level of value retention and on value ¬creation and value co-creation within the sectors. Serious policy in one of these sectors may threat the whole tourism value chain. This makes analysis of the sector complex but crucial as it could be the catalyst for wide spread reforms. To offer a better tourism product, one should understand the sources of critical factors (ie: environmental, industry and organizational factors) for competing either domestically or internationally. Comparative and competitive advantages, information and communication systems and E-tourism, knowledge of value and value chain (identifying and analyzing the specific activities through which it can create value for its customers) all are the perquisite for value creation and value co-creation (the source of value lies in the personalized experiences that are unique to each individual customer). To achieve these, special attention must be devoted to strategic management, planning and society, in order to satisfy all stakeholders' expectation. Based on the above paradigm a model for value creation in tourism is proposed in this paper. It is hoped that this study could drive destinations to create and co- create the values that makes a unique and memorable experience for each tourist.
Keywords: Tourism industry, Value creation, Comparative and comparative advantages, Information and communication systems
An empirical study on measuring the effect of layoff on job satisfaction and employee commitment: A case study of detergent producer unit
Abolfazl Tajzadeh-Namin PDF (171 K)
Abstract: One of the necessary actions in many organizations is to reduce the number of workers in an attempt to restructure business activities. However, layoff could have negative consequences since many employees may decide to leave since they lose their tolerance. The layoff must be accompanied with some supportive plans to reduce stress among the remaining workers and increase their commitment for long-term work. The present study of this paper considers the effects of layoff on job satisfaction and commitment among the remaining employees of a detergent producer unit. The results indicate that a good supportive program including wage increase, family support, health care plans, etc. could significantly improve employee long-term commitments and it leads to job satisfaction.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Employee commitment, Employee reduction, Downsizing
A social work study on welfare receivers' quality of life
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (72 K)
Abstract: Social welfare plays an important role on helping needy people build their future. There is no doubt that a good social welfare program in any country could indirectly reduce rates of crimes and violence. In this study, we examine the quality of life between welfare receivers and ordinary people. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of nine questions and distribute between two groups of 50 people. The questions are based on Likert scale from very low to very high and the feedbacks are analyzed using some statistical tests. The results indicate that typical ordinary people have better life style in terms of nutrition, healthcare, housing and shelter, education, employment, income, social relationships, marital status, entertainment than welfare receivers do.
Keywords: Quality of life, Welfare programs, Social welfare, Life expectation
An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis
Shahram RostamPour PDF (127 K)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.
Keywords: Distribution free analysis, Measuring relative efficiency, Dairy industry, Stochastic frontier analysis, Data envelopment analysis
Outsourcing and its impact on operational objectives and performance: a study of Iranian telecommunication industries
, Pages 235-244
Amir Reza Khaki and Sadra Rashidi PDF (141 K)
Abstract: Through outsourcing, a company can expand and develop its sources and capacities by accessing to higher quality services and better functionality. This paper deals with the perception of the managers of the telecommunication industry sector on the effects of outsourcing on operational strategy and especially on the issues associated with cost reduction, developed quality, flexibility and better service. Because of the importance of the strategic feature of outsourcing, we examined its effects on the organizational function of the telecommunication industries. This study shows that managers believe that outsourcing has a great impact not only on the cost reduction but also on other goals of operational strategies, which makes outsourcing become inherently more strategic. In addition, it seems that outsourcing influences function noticeably. In the present research, the relationships between propensity to outsourcing and operational objectives and organizational performance in telecommunication industries are assessed. The aim of this research is to examine the propensity to outsourcing and its impacts on operational objectives including cost reduction, improved quality, flexibility and better service and organizational performance, which includes financial performance and non-financial performance. In the research, data are collected through field research and questionnaires. The questionnaires are distributed among the board of directors, quality managers, operational administrators, and lower managers and then the feedbacks are analyzed using SPSS and Minitab software based on deductive and descriptive statistics.
Keywords: Outsourcing, Productivity, Supply chain management, Efficiency
Improving efficiency of decision making units through BSC-DEA technique
, Pages 245-252
Amir Reza Khaki, Seyed Esmaeel Najafi and Sadra Rashidi PDF (77 K)
Abstract: Performance evaluation is one of the most important techniques to prioritize different decision making units. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), as a non-parametric method, plays an important role for measuring relative efficiency. Balanced score card, on the other hand, is another method to evaluate a business plan based on non-financial perspectives. The integrated BSC-DEA takes advantage of the advantages of both methods' features. In this paper, we propose a BSC-DEA method to rank different decision making units. We consider different financial criteria such as profit-margin, return on assets along with non-financial criteria such as customer satisfaction, advanced services, employee skills to compare the performance of different banks. The results are analyzed and discussed, which could be used for making better decisions.
Keywords: BSC-DEA, Efficiency, Decision making groups, Data envelopment analysis, Balanced score card
Using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate web development platform
, Pages 253-262
Ahmad Sarfaraz, Pooja Mukerjee and Kouroush Jenab PDF (268 K)
Abstract: Web development is plays an important role on business plans and people's lives. One of the key decisions in which both short-term and long-term success of the project depends is choosing the right development platform. Its criticality can be judged by the fact that once a platform is chosen, one has to live with it throughout the software development life cycle. The entire shape of the project depends on the language, operating system, tools, frameworks etc., in short the web development platform chosen. In addition, choosing the right platform is a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. We propose a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process model to solve the MCDM problem. We try to tap the real-life modeling potential of fuzzy logic and conjugate it with the commonly used powerful AHP modeling method.
Keywords: Fuzzy AHP, Web design, Multiple criteria decision making, Web development, Platform selection
Work capacity assessment of Nigerian bricklayers
, Pages 263-272
S .O. Ismaila, K.T. Oriolowo and O.G. Akanbi PDF (166 K)
Abstract: The main aim of this study is to assess the physical work capacity of bricklayers with focus on the energy expenditure during work. Eighty Nine bricklayers’ working on various sites in Ibadan and Eruwa towns of Oyo State, Nigeria are used for the study. Correlation and regression analysis using SPSS 16.0 Statistical Package was used to determine the relationship between VO2 given the age and weight of the subjects; % RHR(Relative Heart Rate) and working heart rate (HRW) given weight; VO2 and %RHR given Body Mass Index (BMI). The results showed that the mean energy expenditure of bricklaying was 1.5l/min of oxygen (7.23Kcal/min, using a conversion factor of 4.82) which classified bricklaying as “heavy work”. A rest allowance of 64.45% (38.67 minutes rest for 60 minutes work duration) was calculated. It was concluded that there is a need to redesign the work content of the aforementioned occupation in order to reduce excessive strain on the workers, which in turn will increase productivity.
Keywords: Work capacity, Bricklayers, Energy expenditure, Heart rate, Rest allowance
Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers
, Pages 273-278
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (64 K)
Abstract: Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.
Keywords: Motivation, Worker skills, Productivity, Efficiency
An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of irrigation methods in agricultural industry
, Pages 279-284
Mohammad Ebrahim MohammadPour zarandi, Neder Heydari and Shahram RostamPour PDF (64 K)
Abstract: One of the most important issues affecting future world is managing the existing water resources. There is no doubt that global warming has created significant troubles on people's lives and it has caused shortage of water in the world. Therefore, we need to manage the water resources by allocating appropriate methods. In this paper, we use data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of fourteen different irrigation methods. The proposed model of this paper uses four inputs including cost, risk, maintenance and expertise and two outputs including flexibility and durability of irrigation methods. The preliminary results indicate that two surface irrigation methods, one sprinkler irrigation method and one subsurface irrigation technique are considered efficient. Other irrigation techniques are only as much as 50 to 94 percent efficient compared with these five irrigation techniques.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Measuring relative efficiency, Irrigation method, Agricultural industry, Water resource management
An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar
, Pages 285-290
Negar Seyed Soleimanyand Masoud Babakhani PDF (79 K)
Abstract: Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.
Keywords: Sugar demand, Regression analysis, Sugar price, Price elasticity
Evaluation of service quality by using fuzzy MCDM: A case study in Iranian health-care centers
, Pages 291-300
Leili Afkham,Farshid Abdi and Alireza Rashidi PDF (144 K)
Abstract: Service quality plays an important role in health care systems since hospitals are responsible for people's lives. This study presents an effective approach for evaluating and comparing service qualities of four hospitals. Service quality consists of different attributes and many of them are intangible and difficult to measure. Therefore, we propose a fuzzy method to resolve the ambiguity of the concepts, which are associated with human judgments. SERVQUAL model is used to evaluate the respondents' judgments of service quality and multi attribute decision making approach is implemented for the comparison among hospitals. The paper use analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for obtaining criteria weight and TOPSIS for ranking the cases.
Keywords: Fuzzy decision making, TOPSIS, SERVQUL, AHP
An empirical study on the relationship between customers' credit rating and their financial transcripts for loan assignment
, Pages 301-306
Hassan Najafi ,and Ahmad Ahmadkhani PDF (60 K)
Abstract: One of the most important issues on revenue management in banking industries is the assignment of loan to customers. In fact, a big portion of banks' revenue is from loan assignment and choosing appropriate customers for loan assignment not only reduces the financial risk but also it can increase the revenue. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find out whether customers' financial statements could provide enough information about customers for loan assignment. The other objective of this study is to find out whether banks' officials could understand about the details of customers' financial statements. Finally, we want to find out whether there is any relationship between unpaid loans and customers' credit rating. The present study is executed on an Iranian bank by distributing a questionnaire analyzing the results. The results indicate that there are some strong evidence that financial statement could help bank official determine customers' credit rating. The survey also concludes that highly education and experienced employees are the best people for devoting best credit rating for customers.
Keywords: Banking industry, Loan assignment, Customer rating, Financial transcript, Revenue management
A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics
, Pages 307-312
Ahmad Ahmadkhani,Mehrnaz Paknezhad and Ahmad Maaroufkhani PDF (63 K)
Abstract: The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Personality, Job creation, Creativity
A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers
, Pages 313-320
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (73 K)
Abstract: Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.
Keywords: High-risk behavior, Teenager, Crime, Addiction
An empirical study on empowering private bank workers using EFQM
, Pages 321-328
Jafar Beikzad, Yousef Majnooni Totakhaneh and Saeid Ghorbannejad Maleki PDF (154 K)
Abstract: Empowering workers play an essential role on increasing productivity in any organization. The service industries such as insurance companies or banks mostly rely on their own people to retain their customers and incomes. The recent increasing trend on the number of private banks in Iran has increased competition among existing banks. The banking industry strives to empower its employees as much as possible in an attempt to maintain market share by not losing its customers. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect the most important factors empowering bank employees. The study is implemented for a recently established private bank with 228 people with 32 questions where 15 questions are focused on empowering employees. The results are analyzed using statistical tests and descriptive methods. The results indicate that leadership, academic qualification, appropriate policy and strategy, cooperation and processes play important role on empowering and enabling bank's employee.
Keywords: EFQM, Enabling employee, Efficiency, Competition, Organizational excellence
Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan
, Pages 329-338
Nazia Bashir, Amber Sardar, Khalid Zaman, Aamir Khan Swati and Shazia Fakhr PDF (109 K)
Abstract: This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK) of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. The result concludes that altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue have strong positive impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior in the context of higher education institutes in Pakistan.
Keywords: Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), Altruism , Conscientiousness, Civic virtue, Education sector, Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa, Pakistan
Detecting success factors of electronic customer relationship management (e_CRM) system to establish an appropriate model in police call centre of Iran
, Pages 339-350
Ahmad Ali Yazdanpanah and Hossein Gazor PDF (212 K)
Abstract: The present research aims to describe and explain factors affecting the success of eCRM system in police telephone-contact centers as a part of their interactive and relationship-oriented programs. In this study, one of the most famous models implemented in several industries such as insurance industry has been evaluated; the results then have been modified for application. The results, in fact, corroborate the main hypothesis, which points to the existence of a relationship between an establishment and its institutional success. In other words, having established an eCRM system, institutions will witness an increase in efficiency, staff satisfaction, and eventually customer satisfaction. The results may also explain the failure of some huge investments in implementing modern technology to disseminate information and establish communication by indicating that large investments in technology do not necessarily bring about required improvement in efficiency. It has also been demonstrated that expanding types of services to include ones such as providing counseling via telephone and placing accurate and relevant information on the website needs to be considered as part of an eCRM system agenda.
Keywords: Customer relationship management, Electronic customer relationship management, Technology systems, Success factors, Iran police
Role of social workers to support single mothers: A case study of welfare receivers in Iran
, Pages 351-356
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (79 K)
Abstract: The women who lose their partners normally face tremendous challenges among their parents and in society. Women may lose their husbands for different reasons such as divorce, drug addiction, violence and migration. They may often look to build a new life very quickly but will find out that society does not treat them, properly. It is more difficult to find job and even a job opportunity does not provide sufficient pay. In this paper, we study the impact of different affecting parameters on empowering single mothers such as audacity, social responsibility, trouble shooting, flexibility, stress tolerance, etc. We choose 200 single mothers who receive welfare from the government of Iran and distribute a questionnaire among them based on four different questions associated with social, economical, feeling and empowering. The results indicate that audacity and social responsibility are the most important items while being optimistic, independent and flexibility are counted as having the least impact on empowering single mothers.
Keywords: Single mother, Empowering, Welfare impact, Audacity and empowering, Social activity
A social work study to investigate the relationship between mental health conditions, religion and suicide attempts
, Pages 357-362
Mohammad Reza Iravani PDF (67 K)
Abstract: This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the relationship between different elements such as mental health conditions, believes and overall perception and suicide attempt. Our study covers all female and male students who study in a private university in Iran. There are about 400 students who participated in our survey and we distribute three questionnaires among them consist of various questions. The results indicate that there are strong negative correlations between suicide attempts and students' believes in God regardless of their genders. The survey also indicates that there is not any strong positive correlation between students' mental health care and religious believes. The results of the study show that there is not a meaningful difference between the health care of male students and female students on suicide attempts. The study concludes that there is a strong difference between suicide attempts between female and male students.
Keywords: Suicide attempts, Mental health care, Religious belief, Student suicide attempts
A study of how to implement a successful CRM by identifying challenges using DEMATEL method: An empirical study on small to medium business units
, Pages 363-368
Bahman Saeidipour and Saeid Ismaeli PDF (447 K)
Abstract: This paper identifies and analyzes barriers of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation in SMEs. Hence, based on a comprehensive review of the literature and gathering the viewpoint of experts, the influencing barriers are identified. In order to analyze the identified barriers, DEMATEL methodology is applied and a causal model of the relationships between barriers is developed. Furthermore, based on the DEMATEL results the barriers are also categorized into two groups of driver and dependent. The results of study show that inadequate budget, organization culture, obligation of major management to CRM and inadequate access to modern technical knowledge are among effective impediments and play important role in successful establishment of customer relationship management system.
Keywords: Supply chain, Customer relationship management, DEMATEL, Effective factors
Analyzing effective elements in agile supply chain
, Pages 369-378
Babak Jamshidi Navid and Saeid Ismaeli PDF (663 K)
Abstract: Agile supply chain plays an important role on having efficient production planning. There are different factors affecting the efficiency of a supply chain and the attempt of this paper is to find the most important elements in agile supply chain. The proposed model of this paper gathers decision makers' opinions and based on DEMATEL technique determines the most important items. The preliminary results of this survey indicate that we could divide the factors into four groups and two elements including automation and utilization of technical tools of relations and information play the most important roles among other factors.
Keywords: Supply chain, Agile supply chain, DEMATEL, Effective factors
Application of Delphi method for determining the affecting factors upon audit risk model
, Pages 379-390
Zohreh Hajiha PDF (106 K)
Abstract: The assessment of risks in an audit work could directly influence the costs, timing, and strategies as well as audit quality. The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical affecting factors on risks proposed in Audit Risk Model (ARM), in Iranian audit environment of Iran. In the present, the Delphi Method consists of 60 audit partners and managers is employed. The panel consists of two equally divided groups, one from audit organization, a governmental organization, and the other from private audit firms. We employ two rounds of Delphi and 58 critical risk factors extracted from auditing literature and Iranian auditing standards and present them to the experts. There are 43 factors categorized as important factors to assess the risks in ARM. The results are considerable in an Iranian audit environment, findings show the most important factors are in inherent risk factors. Finally, we made a comparison with a similar study in Taiwan. Differences indicate that in professional judgment issues like risk assessment, the consideration of particular culture and environment could help enhance the precision of assessments, especially in assessing control risk factors.
Keywords: Audit risk model, Affecting factors, Inherent risk, Control risk, Detection risk, Delphi panel
Spirituality at the workplace and its role on organizational justice
, Pages 391-396
Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani, Jafar Beikzad, Sackine jafary and Saeid Ghorbannejad Maleki PDF (63 K)
Abstract: Spirituality and ethics play important roles in bringing justice for many business units. During the past few years, there has been growing concern on thinking about profitability without considering other aspects such as spirituality. The infamous Enron incident has been a crystal clear of a case of thinking just on short-term profitability without considering other ethical issues. Spirituality helps organizations create ethical values, responsibility and job satisfaction among workers and these issues could increase business competitive advantages. In this paper, we study the impact of spirituality on different levels of individual, workspace and organizational for a real-world case study. The survey results of this paper indicate that spirituality could significantly impact the organization in different levels.
Keywords: Spirituality, Working environment, Efficiency, Competition
A study on effects of packaging characteristics on consumer's purchasing confidence
, Pages 397-402
Naser Azad and Leila Hamdavipour PDF (67 K)
Abstract: Packaging plays an important role on marketing products and services in many competitive environments. A good packaging can increase sales of products, reduces the level of inventory, which yields to higher profitability. In this paper, we study the relationship between a good packaging program and customer's confidence as well as customer's attraction on purchasing goods and services. The paper uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the target population of this survey and the information of packaging are divided into two groups of visibility and informative. The results indicate that a good and label with detailed and precise information on product could significantly impact customer's confidence while other visible information do not have much impact on customer's confidence.
Keywords: Advertisement, Packaging advertisement, Effectiveness, Marketing planning
Design and explanation of organizational excellence model in home appliances industry
, Pages 403-408
Seyed Abbas Kazemi, Gholamhossein Nikokar, Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani and Majid Rahimimazraehshahi PDF (88 K)
Abstract: Home appliances are considered as one of low margin and competitive industry in the world. This industry often needs significant amount of investment and resources and it often faces with some challenges during economic crises. In this paper, we present a framework for organizational excellence to detect any possible problems in home appliances industry. The proposed framework of this paper is used for a real-world case study of Iranian home appliances. The results of our survey indicate that there are four major dimensions involved with this industry including facilities, knowledge and skills, environment and vision. There are three criteria associated with facilities with 30 indexes, 14 criteria associated with knowledge and skills with 144 indexes, three criteria involved with environment with 33 indexes and five criteria linked with vision with 53 indexes. Therefore, home appliances in our case study needs 4 dimensions for achieving the organizational excellence.
Keywords: Home appliances, Organizational excellence, EFQM, TQM, LISREL
Investigating effective factors on multimedia advertising: A case study of travel agencies
, Pages 409-416
Naser Azad, Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar and Navab Kordalivand PDF (67 K)
Abstract: Advertisement plays an important role on increasing sales and organizations normally spend significant amount of cost in an attempt to increase profitability. A productive advertisement normally involves various factors and we need to determine the most important ones, very carefully. In this paper, we use a questionnaire-based survey to find the most important factors influencing advertisement. In this paper, we focus on gathering information from the advertisement providers to assess each advertisement plan. The proposed study of this paper uses factor analysis to determine 15 most important factors, which include 42 variables.
Keywords: Media Advertisement, Travel agencies, Effectiveness, Effective parameters
A study on barriers of using information technology on learning and teaching in elementary schools
, Pages 417-424
Sara Tountab Haghighi and Mahboobeh Eskandari PDF (191 K)
Abstract: In this paper, we present an empirical study to determine the effects of different barriers on using information technology for learning and teaching in elementary school students. We plan to find the most important factors preventing elementary school children on implementing different information technology facilities for their educational programs. The study selects a population of 720 women teachers who work for elementary schools and chooses a sample of 220 people for this study. A questionnaire consists of various important factors are distributed among these people and the results are analyzed using some statistical tests. The study indicates that education program itself is to blame as the most important barrier for using information technology.
Keywords: Training program, Information technology, Learning studies, Educational programs, Structural barriers
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