Bullwhip effect is one of the serious problems caused by uncertainty in supply chain management. Graph theoretical approach has been utilized by some of the authors towards evaluation of various phenomena performance. This paper has been an attempt to develop bullwhip effect mitigation index (BWEMI), which is a single numerical benchmarking index utilizing graph theory and matrix (GTM) method. Review of literature and subsequent discussions with experts to obtain their valuable opinions regarding managing supply chains have been utilized to complement and supplement the variables. Digraph theory has been used to develop various matrices showing interactions among bullwhip effect mitigation factors. The tool so developed may help supply chain managers to analyze and quantify efforts towards bullwhip effect mitigation.
Customer Demand Information (CDI) sharing plays a vital role in reducing the bullwhip effect as well as in improving the performance of a supply chain. The objective of the present research is to identify the best form of CDI sharing experimentally for a four-stage serial supply chain under lost sales business environment. A supply chain role play game software package is developed for conducting suitable experiments. Different forms of CDI sharing tested in this research are periodic CDI, history of CDI and CDI in the form of distribution. It is found that all forms of CDI sharing have significant impact on the reduction of bullwhip effect compared to non-sharing of information and the upstream stages in the supply chain are benefited the most under CDI sharing. The statistical analysis also confirms that sharing CDI in the form of distribution is the most effective among the various forms of information sharing studied. The percentage reductions in magnitude of order variance under the most benefitted information sharing at distributor and factory stages are 64.43 and 66.04, respectively. It is also found that the performance of a supply chain depends on the degree of customer demand information shared among the stages in the supply chain.
Export is the backbone of business development in any industry and it plays essential role on the success of organizations. The objective of this study is to determine factors influencing on food industry for development of export activities. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 247 randomly selected experts who were active in production of foods in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis based on varimax rotation, the study detects six factors including social opportunities, international opportunities, customer orientation, business opportunities, new technologies, organizational capabilities, commercialization of ideas on the development of export markets.
Organizational performance is influenced by several factors including electronic services. In fact, electronic services play essential role on the performance of organizations with significant number of clients. The objective of this study is to determine factors influencing on intention to use electronic services on organizational performance in social service organization in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 231 randomly selected employees who worked for social security organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis using varimax rotation, the study determines six factors including culture, communication, customer, employee engagement, learning organization, service management, and usefulness of application, which influence the most on organizational performance.
The objective of this study is to develop of an inventory policy for deteriorating items, in which demand for the products is stock dependent and the retailer invests in preservation technology to reduce the rate of product deterioration. In many real-life situations, for certain types of consumer goods, the consumption rate is sometimes influenced by the stock-level. It is usually observed that a large pile of goods on a shelf in a supermarket will lead the customer to buy more and then generate higher demand. The consumption rate may go up or down with the on-hand stock level. This paper is developed with the realistic conditions of demand, allowable credit period, partial backlogging and variable ordering cost. A solution procedure is given to find the optimal preservation technology cost and total cost of the system. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis are presented to illustrate the model.
Decision support system (DSS) normally consists of a set of related computer programs and the data required to help with analysis and decision-making within an organization. Many software vendors claim their decision support, analytics or business intelligence applications may provide a competitive advantage by providing different facilities such as business intelligence tools, business performance management software, data mining tools, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine different DSS factors influencing on development of export activities on selected firms which are active in Tehran Stock Exchange. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 35 questions and distributes it among 211 randomly selected managers who were involved in export activities. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.817, which is well above the minimum desirable level. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including internal resources, management approach, quality of data, efficiency of data and organizational approach, which influence the most on export activities.
Free trade zones are important regions for development of business activities and detecting important factors for development of these regions plays essential role for development of economy. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the factors influencing the performance of the incentive polities of free trade zones in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 34 questions. Cronbach alpha is equal to 0.809, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. In addition, Bartlett & apos; s Test of Sphericity yields a Chi-Square value of 2392.31 with Sig. = 0.000. Using principal component analysis with rotation, the study has detected six important factors influencing on development of free trade zones including government support, financial capability, development strategy, product competition, infrastructure and consultation services.
In today' s extremely competitive environment, customers are the most important asset of any business and success of any organization depends on loyal customer retention. Therefore, it is important to learn more about different groups of customers and propose appropriate plans to take care of them. Customer segmentation is one of the most common methods to analyze customer’s behavior. The market can be divided into several smaller homogeneous groups, which helps organizations deliver targeted marketing techniques and provides optimized techniques for resource allocation. This paper uses the information gathered from Point of Sales (POS) in one of Iranian private banks and using two methods of K-Means and Kohonen, customers are clustered into four segments to detect the most profitable customers.
Due to the emergent government regulations and stronger public awareness about environment today organizations simply cannot discard environmental concern if these companies want to stay alive in the international market. Environmental management is becoming more and more important for companies for sustainable development. If the industries of developing countries have to export to developed nations they have to match up with developed countries’ environmental standards. The emphasis on the environmental protection is not only due to organizational stakeholders but also governments, customers, employees, competitors and communities. Environmental issues in manufacturing sectors are not investigated appropriately in developing countries. The objectives of this paper are to review the literature on drivers and barriers for the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). After providing a background on GSCM, categories and review the literature on various issues/ factors for the recent GSCM, the concluding remarks for this review is also presented.
Export plays an essential role for boosting the economy of developing countries. On the other hand, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are important part of any economy. Therefore, it is important to determine the effects of various factors influencing on development of export activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of customer segmentation factors on the performance of export activities of SMEs in Iranian food industry. The study selects a sample of 227 people who were involved in development of SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 34 questions, Cronbach alpha and KMO are equal to 0.809 and 0.764, respectively, which are well above the desirable levels. Using principal component analysis, the study has determined that different factors including competitive structure, organizational strategy, customer’s studies and organizational factors influencing the most on promoting export activities.