In recent years, efforts have been made to produce advanced composite materials in order to lessen environmental impact and to extent sustainability. Traditional materials are largely substituted by composites due to their greater properties like flexural strength, low thermal expansion and high strength. Numerous studies are present that show the process of composite materials reinforcement with natural fiber to improve mechanical and thermal properties. The vital aspect of exploitation of natural fiber in composites is associated with biodegradability. An extensive range of different natural fibers has been used for reinforcement till now. In present work, mechanical properties of jute fiber reinforced epoxy and polyester composites manufactured using Taguchi optimization method are investigated, experimentally. It was found that jute reinforced epoxy composite had better mechanical properties than jute polyester composite. Also, Epoxy- jute composite had lower erosion wear rate than polyester jute composites.
The main objective of this paper is to study the effects of haversinse and triangular loading waveforms on the fatigue life of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimens. Effects of load duration, rest period and stress level are also studied for the asphalt mixtures at 25oC. An indirect tensile test with strain control was performed to determine the fatigue life of asphalt. The fatigue tests were performed at two stress levels (170 and 250 kPa), two waveforms (haversine and triangle), three load duration (100, 200, 400 ms), and two rest period to load duration ratios (4 and 9). The obtained results showed that fatigue life of haversine waveform is less than fatigue life of triangle waveform. As the area under the loading curve is increased (stress level is increased or deformed), effect of rest period on the fatigue life decreases. On the other hand, as the tire contact area is increased, the induced tire pressure reduction decreases its destructive effects on the asphalt layer. As the load duration is decreased, fatigue life will increase. This effect is more pronounced for lower stress levels than the higher stress levels.
Cold working a hole decreases tendency of fatigue crack initiation and growth near the hole. It is due to creation of some compressive tangential residual stresses around the hole. But there are many uncertainties which affect the residual strain and residual stress field. In fact these uncertainties lead to have scatter in the test results and considering the residual strains and residual stresses as random variables. In this paper strains recorded by strain gages mounted around the hole during cold working process in seven pieces specimens, were analyzed by statistical tests and stochastic properties of mentioned random variables were obtained using SPSS software. The residual strains have been also distributed by normal probability distribution function.