The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.
Tourism plays essential role in today’s economy and Iran has good position of tourism sources such as natural, historical, cultural, etc., although, these sources have not been utilized, properly. One of regions which have many potentiality and capabilities for developing Tourism in natural aspect is district and city of Galugah. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic assessment and optimization strategies for development of tourism industry to reach sustainable tourism development in this city. The study uses three techniques namely; Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to determine necessary guidelines for development of tourism in the city of Galugah, Iran. The study first uses SWOT to categorize different factors and then QSPM is applied to prioritize various factors. The results of this study show that presenting methods in initial process and analyzing assessment matrix of T2 external and internal factors i.e. pollution of environment and river and extinction of plants species by result of pollution and O2 i.e. suitable climate for developing natural Tourism efforts in summer have been recognized as most priority factors among external factors. Intense cold of region in summer (W3) and existence of unique amusement places (S5) such as Amarg were recognized as effective and most priority factors among internal factors on Tourism development of Galugah city.
Population growth and rapid urbanization growth in recent decades have not only led to unbalanced physical expansion of cities, but also contributed to growth and development of cities. The city of Sari in Iran, like many other cities is not immune from these changes. The city population has increased by 16 times over the last fifty years. Therefore, the increasing population growth has created uncontrolled physical expansion in the city. In order to prevent these inefficiencies of urban problems, the present study was accomplished to determine the factors influencing the process of expanding the city of Sari and to find out some solutions to fix and prevent this process. The method used in this study, descriptive–analytical method, to data analysis and Heldern and Shannon entropy model were used. The results show that: 82% of the physical growth of the city during the period 1977-2005 was related to the population growth and the remaining 18 percent, was associated with the horizontal growth. The city sprawl, the metropolitan area of the city had denser structure and the surrounding areas had a more dispersed structure. Also the effects of synthetic and natural factors restricting the city of Sari physical development made the city exorbitance horizontal and linearly developed. According to the findings that could help prevent the horizontal development of the city, it could be said that we could make the city vertically developed rather than horizontal expansion, improvement and renovation of old texture of implementation and more use of the land, filling the empty spaces.
Qom is one of the most important religious centers in the Shiite world and it is the second largest pilgrimage center in Iran with tourism capabilities. Tourists and visitors of the city can contribute for the development of city and it can help city & apos; s economy and create new job opportunities. However, achieving these benefits and suitability becomes possible as long as necessary civil and social infrastructures are provided. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic assessment and optimization strategies for development of tourism industry to reach sustainable tourism development in city of Qom metropolis. The study uses three techniques namely; Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM), integrated environmental assessment (IEA) and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to determine necessary guidelines for development of tourism in city of Qom, Iran. The study first uses SWOT to categorize different factors, IEA is applied to determine internal as well as external factors and finally QSPM is applied to prioritize various factors. The results indicate that the city has faced stronger weakness than strengths for development of tourism industry. However, in terms of external opportunities, there are several choices for city development.