In this paper, an integrated layout model has been considered to incorporate intra and inter-department layout. In the proposed model, the arrangement of facilities within the departments is obtained through the QAP and from the other side the continuous layout problem is implemented to find the position and orientation of rectangular shape departments on the planar area. First, a modified version of QAP with fewer binary variables is presented. Afterward the integrated model is formulated based on the developed QAP. In order to evaluate material handling cost precisely, the actual position of machines within the departments (instead of center of departments) is considered. Moreover, other design factors such as aisle distance, single or multi row intra-department layout and orientation of departments have been considered. The mathematical model is formulated as mixed-integer programming (MIP) to minimize total material handling cost. Also due to the complexity of integrated model a heuristic method has been developed to solve large scale problems in a reasonable computational time. Finally, several illustrative numerical examples are selected from the literature to test the model and evaluate the heuristic.
In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a supply chains (SCs) under uncertainty with different components such as direct costs, operational costs, transaction expenses, order lead time, product flexibility and net profit. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) can be used for measuring the performance of supply chain problems. On the other hand, robust optimization approach is a powerful technique for handling problems faced with various environmental uncertainties. This paper combines these two concepts and proposes a method to evaluate SCs performance. The results of the proposed method, under any different environmental situation, show which ranking of SC’s performance is better in a network. The preliminary results of the implementation of a real-world case study indicates that the method could be successfully used for performance measurement.
Formulation and evaluation of strategy play important role in the strategy management. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats (SWOT) is a famous approach to formulate strategy planning, which relies on external and internal factors. Identifying these factors precisely is very critical for any organization and manager. This study aims at providing a quantitative basis to analytically determine the ranking of the factors in SWOT analysis via Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach. This paper applies SWOT and Richard Rumelt & apos; s criteria to evaluate strategies in Evidential Reasoning approach. The ER approach has been developed to support MADA under uncertainty. It is based on Dempster’s rule for evidence combination and uses belief functions for dealing with probabilistic uncertainty and ignorance. This research is the first study in the ranking the factors of SWOT and Richard Rumelt approach. An illustrative example is also presented to show the efficiency of our model.